ABS Contributor. 2014. “Top 10 Most Segregated Cities in the U.S.” Atlanta Black Star, 24 March. http://atlantablackstar.com.
Abu Lughod, Janet. 2012. Race, Space, and Riots in Chicago, New York, and Los Angeles. New York: Oxford University Press.
Achebe, Chinua. 1991. Things Fall Apart. New York: Fawcett Crest.
Adams, Russell. 1977. “Black Studies Perspectives.” Journal of Negro Education 46 (2): 99-117.
Adell, Sandra. 1994. Double-Consciousness / Double Bind: Theoretical Issues in Twentieth-Century Black Literature. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Adewunmi, Bim. 2014. “Kimberlé Crenshaw on Intersectionality: ‘I Wanted to Come Up with an Everyday Metaphor That Anyone Could Use.’” New Statesman, 2 April. www.newstatesman.com.
Adorno, Theodor W., and Max Horkheimer. 2002. Dialectic of Enlightenment. Translated by Edmund Jephcott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Agassiz, Louis. 1850. “The Diversity of Origin of the Human Races.” Christian Examiner 49:110-45.
Ahmed, Sara. 2012. On Being Included: Racism and Diversity in Institutional Life. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Akbar, Na’im. 1996. Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery. Tallahassee, FL: Mind Productions.
Alaimo, Stacey. 2010. Bodily Natures: Science, Environment, and the Material Self. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Alexander-Floyd, Nikol. 2012. “Disappearing Acts: Reclaiming Intersectionality in the Social Sciences in a Post Black Feminist Era.” Feminist Formations 24 (1): 1-25.
Alexander, Elizabeth. 2005. American Sublime. Minneapolis: Graywolf.
Alexander, M. Jacqui. 2005. Pedagogies of Crossing: Meditations on Feminism, Sexual Politics, Memory and the Sacred. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Alexander, Michelle. 2012. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: Free Press.
Alim, H. Samy. 2009. “Straight Outta Compton, Straight aus München: GlobalLinguistic Flows, Identities, and the Politics of Languagein a Global Hip Hop Nation.” In Global Linguistic Flows: Hip Hop Cultures, Youth Identities, and the Politics of Language, edited by H. Samy Alim, Awad Ibrahim, and Alastair Pennycook, 1-24. New York: Routledge.
Allen, Jafari. 2011. Venceremos? The Erotics of Black Self-Making in Cuba. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Allen, Robert L. 1969. Black Awakening in Capitalist America: An Analytic History. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Anderson, Benedict. (1983) 2006. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso.
Anderson, James D. 1988. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1915. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Anderson, Margo J. 2015. The American Census: A Social History. 2nd ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Andrews, Penelope. 2014. “A Champion for African Freedom: Paul Robeson and the Struggle against Apartheid.” Albany Law Review 77 (1): 473-98.
Andrews, Steve. 2007. “Toward a Synaesthetics of Soul: W. E. B. Du Bois and the Teleology of Race.” In Re-cognizing W. E. B. Du Bois in the Twenty-First Century: Essays on W. E. B. Du Bois, edited by Mary Keller and Chester J. Fontenot Jr., 142-85. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press.
Androutsopoulos, Jannis. 2009. “Language and the Three Spheres of Hip Hop.” In Global Linguistic Flows: Hip Hop Cultures, Youth Identities, and the Politics of Language, edited by H. Samy Alim, Awad Ibrahim, and Alastair Pennycook, 43-63. New York: Routledge.
Appiah, Anthony. 1991. “Is the Post- in Postmodernism the Post- in Postcolonial?” Critical Inquiry 17 (2): 336-57.
—. 1992. In My Father’s House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.
Aptheker, Bettina. 1971. “The Social Functions of the Prisons in the United States.” In If They Come in the Morning: Voices of Resistance, edited by Angela Y. Davis, 39-48. New York: Signet.
—. 1982. Woman’s Legacy: Essays on Race, Sex, and Class in American History. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
Aptheker, Herbert. 1943. American Negro Slave Revolts. New York: Columbia University Press.
—. 1951. Documentary History of the Negro People. Vol. 1. New York: Citadel.
—. 1976. Introduction to Black Reconstruction, by W. E. B. Du Bois, xxv-lxii. Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thomson.
Asante, Molefi Kete. 1980. Afrocentricity: The Theory of Social Change. Buffalo, NY Amulefi.
—. 1988. Afrocentricity. Rev. ed. Trenton, NJ: Africa World.
Ashcroft, Bill. 2012. “Colonialism.” In Blackwell Encyclopedias in Social Sciences: The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Globalization, edited by George Ritzer. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. https://search.credoreference.com.
Ashe, Bertram. 2007. “Theorizing the Post-Soul Aesthetic: An Introduction.” In “Post-Soul Aesthetic.” Special issue, African American Review 41 (4): 609-23.
Assensoh, Akwasi B. 2000. “Conflict or Cooperation? Africans and African Americans in Multiracial America.” In Black and Multiracial Politics in America, edited by Yvette M. Alex-Assensoh and Lawrence J. Hanks, 113-30. New York: NYU Press.
Association for the Study of African American Life and History. 2013. “The Long Movement: State of the Scholarship Roundtable.” Proceedings of ninety-eighth meeting of the Association of the Study of African American Life and History, Jacksonville, FL, 5 October.
Avilez, GerShun. 2016. Radical Aesthetics and Modern Black Nationalism. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Azurara, Gomes Eannes de. 1936. Conquest and Discoveries of Henry the Navigator: Being the Chronicles of Azurara, Portuguese Navigators & Colonizers of the Fifteenth & Sixteenth Centuries. Translated by Bernard Miall. London: Allen and Unwin.
Bailey, Marlon. 2011. “Gender/Racial Realness: Theorizing the Gender System in Ballroom Culture.” Feminist Studies 37 (2): 365-86.
Bair, Barbara. 2000. “Though Justice Sleeps, 1880-1900.” In To Make Our World Anew: A History of African Americans, edited by Robin D. G. Kelley and Earl Lewis, 281-344. New York: Oxford University Press.
Baker, Ella, and Marvel Cooke. 1935. “The Bronx Slave Market.” Crisis 42 (November): 330-31.
Baker, Ella. 1960. “Bigger than a Hamburger.” Southern Patriot, May, 4.
Baker, Lee D. 1998. From Savage to Negro: Anthropology and the Construction of Race, 1896-1954. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Baldwin, Davarian. 2007. Chicago’s New Negroes: Modernity, the Great Migration and Black Urban Life. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Baldwin, Daviaran, and Minkah Makalani, eds. 2009. Escape from New York: The New Negro Renaissance beyond Harlem. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Baldwin, James. 1953. Go Tell It on the Mountain. New York: New American Library.
—. (1956) 2001. Giovanni’s Room. New York: Modern Library.
—. (1962) 1993. Another Country. New York: Vintage Books.
—. (1963) 1993. The Fire Next Time. New York: Vintage International.
—. (1972) 2007. No Name in the Street. New York: Vintage Books.
Balfour, Lawrie. 2011. Democracy’s Reconstruction: Thinking Politically with W. E. B. Du Bois. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ball, Charles. 1858. Fifty Years in Chains; or, The Life of an American Slave. New York: Dayton and Asher.
Ballad of America. n.d. “Oh Freedom.” Accessed 2017. www.balladofamerica.com.
Bambaataa, Afrika. 1984. “Unity.” With James Brown. Tommy Boy / Warner Bros.
Bambara, Toni Cade, ed. 1970. The Black Woman: An Anthology. New York New American Library.
—. 1981. Foreword to This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color, edited by Cherríe Moraga and Gloria Anzaldúa, xxix-xxxii. Albany: SUNY Press.
Baptist, Edward. 2014. The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism. New York: Basic Books.
Baraka, Amiri, and Larry Neal, eds. 1968. Black Fire: An Anthology of Afro-American Writing. New York: Morrow.
Baraka, Amiri. 1987. “The Phenomenon of Soul in African-American Music.” In The Music: Reflections on Jazz and Blues, edited by Amiri Baraka and Amina Baraka, 268-76. New York: William Morrow.
—. 1991. “Black Art.” In The Leroi Jones / Amiri Baraka Reader, edited by William J. Harris, 219-20. New York: Thunder’s Mouth.
Bardolph, Richard. 1970. The Civil Rights Record: Black Americans and the Law, 1849-1970. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.
Bate, Peter, dir. 2003. Congo: White King, Red Rubber, Black Death. ArtMattan Films.
Baudrillard, Jean. 1988. “Simulacra and Simulations.” In Jean Baudrillard, Selected Writings, edited by Mark Poster, 166-84. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Bauer, Raymond, and Alice Bauer. 1942. “Day to Day Resistance to Slavery.” Journal of Negro History 27:388-419.
Bay, Mia. 2009. To Tell the Truth Freely: The Life of Ida B. Wells. New York: Hill and Wang.
Beale, Frances. (1970) 2010. “Double Jeopardy: To Be Black and Female.” In The Black Woman: An Anthology, edited by Toni Cade Bambara, 109-22. New York: New American Library.
Beckert, Sven. 2014. Empire of Cotton: A Global History. New York: Knopf.
Bederman, Gail. 1995. Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bell, Karen Cook. 2016. “Self-Emancipating Women, Civil War, and the Union Army in Southern Louisiana and Lowcountry Georgia, 1861-1865.” Journal of African American History 101 (Winter-Spring): 1-22.
Ben-zvi, Yael. 2017. Native Land Talk: Indigenous and Arrivant Rights Theories. Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England.
Bennett, Andy. 2000. Popular Music and Youth Culture: Music, Identity, and Place. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan.
Bennett, Jane. 2010. Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Bennett, Lerone. 1961. “The Soul of Soul.” Ebony, December.
—. 1966. “Stokely Carmichael: Architect of Black Power.” Ebony, September.
—. 1984. Before the Mayflower: A History of Black America. New York: Penguin Books.
—. 2000. Forced into Glory: Abraham Lincoln’s White Dream. Chicago: Johnson.
Berger, Dan, Mariame Kaba, and David Stein. 2017. “What Abolitionists Do.” Jacobin, 24 August.
Berger, Dan. 2014. Captive Nation: Black Prison Organizing in the Civil Rights Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Bernasconi, Robert. 2001. “Who Invented the Concept of Race? Kant’s Role in the Enlightenment Construction of Race.” In Race, edited by Robert Bernasconi, 11-36. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Berrey, Ellen. 2015. The Enigma of Diversity: The Language of Race and the Limits of Racial Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
BET.com. 2015. “David Banner: White Rappers Are Getting More Lyrical-and We’re Mumbling.” 29 September. www.bet.com.
Bhabha, Homi K. 1994. The Location of Culture. New York: Routledge.
Bibb, Henry. (1849) 2001. Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb: An American Slave. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Bierria, Alisa, Mimi Kim, and Clarissa Rojas. 2011-12. “Community Accountability: Emerging Movements to Transform Violence.” Social Justice 37:1-11.
Biko, Steve. 2002. I Write What I Like: Selected Writings. Edited by Aelred Stubbs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Biondi, Martha. 2012. The Black Revolution on Campus. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Black Lives Matter. n.d.-a. “Herstory.” Accessed 2017. http://blacklivesmatter.com.
—. n.d.-b. “What We Believe.” Accessed 2017. http://blacklivesmatter.com.
Black, Stephanie, dir. 2001. Life and Debt. Tuff Gong Pictures.
Blackett, Richard J. M. 2018. The Captive’s Quest for Freedom: Fugitive Slaves, the 1850 Fugitive Slave Law, and the Politics of Slavery. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Blackmon, Douglas A. 2008. Slavery by Another Name: The Re-enslavement of Black People in America from the Civil War to World War II. New York: Doubleday.
Blassingame, John W. (1972) 1979. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
Blight, David W. 2001. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bogle, Donald. (1973) 1994. Toms, Coons, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretative History of Blacks in American Films. New York: Continuum.
Bond, Patrick. 2000. Elite Transition: From Apartheid to Neoliberalism in South Africa. London: Pluto.
Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2001. White Supremacy and Racism in the Post-Civil Rights Era. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Boogie Down Productions. 1987. “South Bronx.” Criminal Minded. Traffic/Traffic Entertainment Group.
Borstelmann, Thomas. 2001. The Cold War and the Color Line: American Race Relations in the Global Arena. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bourne, St. Clair, dir. 1996. John Henrik Clarke: A Great Mighty Walk. Black Dot Media.
Bowling, Nathan. 2016. “Much of White America Is ‘Perfectly Happy’ with Segregated Schools, Says One Teacher of the Year.” Hechinger Report, 1 February. http://hechingerreport.org.
Boxer, Marilyn Jacoby. 1998. When Women Ask the Questions: Creating Women’s Studies in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Bracey, John H., Jr. 2014. “Coming from a Black Thing: Remembering the Black Arts Movement.” In SOS: Calling All Black People, a Black Arts Movement Reader, edited by John H. Bracey Jr., Sonia Sanchez, and James Smethurst, 650-55. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
Braidotti, Rosi. 2006. “Posthuman, All Too Human: Towards a New Process Ontology.” Theory, Culture & Society 23 (7-8): 197-208.
Brand, Dionne. 2002. A Map to the Door of No Return: Notes to Belonging. Toronto: Vintage Canada.
Braz, Rose. 2006. “Kinder, Gentler, Gender Responsive Cages: Prison Expansion Is Not Prison Reform.” Women, Girls, & Criminal Justice, October-November, 87-91.
Brisbane, Robert H. 1974. Black Activism: Racial Revolution in the United States, 1954-1970. Valley Forge, PA: Judson.
Brock, Lisa. 1996. “Questioning the Diaspora: Hegemony, Black Intellectuals and Doing International History from Below.” Issue: A Journal of Opinion 24 (2): 9-12.
Brody, Jennifer DeVere, and Dwight A. McBride. 2000. “Plum Nelly: New Essays in Black Queer Studies: Introduction.” Callaloo 23 (1): 286-88.
Brody, Jennifer DeVere. 2008. Punctuation: Art, Politics, Play. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Brophy, Alfred L. 2002. Reconstructing the Dreamland: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, Race Reparations, and Reconciliation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. 1954. 347 U.S. 483.
Brown, Drea. 2015. Dear Girl, a Reckoning. Los Angeles: Gold Line.
Brown, Elsa Barkley. 1994. “Negotiating and Transforming the Public Sphere: African American Political Life in the Transition from Slavery to Freedom.” Public Culture 7 (1): 107-46.
Brown, Frank L. (1959) 2005. Trumbull Park. Lebanon, NH: Northeastern University Press.
Brown, Kimberly Juanita. 2015. Repeating Body: Slavery’s Visual Resonance in the Contemporary. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Brown, Vincent. 2008. The Reaper’s Garden: Death and Power in the World of Atlantic Slavery. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Brown, William Wells. (1847) 1970. The Narrative of William W. Brown, a Fugitive Slave. New York: Johnson.
Browne, Simone. 2015. Dark Matters: On the Surveillance of Blackness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press Books.
Bruce, Dickson D., Jr. 1989. Black American Writing from the Nadir: The Evolution of a Literary Tradition, 1877-1915. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
Bruyneel, Kevin. 2007. The Third Space of Sovereignty: The Postcolonial Politics of U.S.-Indigenous Relations. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Buck-Morss, Susan. 2000. “Hegel and Haiti.” Critical Inquiry 26 (4): 821-65.
Bunche, Ralph Johnson. 1992. An African American in South Africa: The Travel Notes of Ralph J. Bunche, 28 September 1937-1 January 1938. Edited by Robert R. Edgar. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Bundy, Colin. 1979. The Rise and Fall of the South African Peasantry. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Burgett, Bruce. 2007. “Sex.” In Keywords for American Cultural Studies, edited by Bruce Burgett and Glenn Hendler, 217-20. New York: NYU Press.
Bush, Rod. 1999. We Are Not What We Seem: Black Nationalism and Class Struggle in the American Century. New York: NYU Press.
Bushnell, Amy Turner. 2009. “Indigenous America and the Limits of the Atlantic World, 1493 1825.” In Atlantic History: A Critical Appraisal, edited by Jack P. Greene and Phillip D. Morgan, 191-222. New York: Oxford University Press.
Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge.
Butler, Octavia. 1979. Kindred. New York: Doubleday.
—. 1993. Parable of the Sower. New York: Time Warner.
—. 1998. Parable of the Talents. New York: Time Warner.
Byrd, Jodi A. 2011. The Transit of Empire: Indigenous Critiques of Colonialism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Cahill, Cathleen D. 2011. Federal Fathers and Mothers: A Social History of the United States Indian Service, 1869-1933. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Camacho, Daniel José. 2015. “Why James H. Cone’s Liberation Theology Matters More than Ever.” Religion Dispatches, June 2. http://religiondispatches.org.
Camp, Jordan T., and Christina Heatherton, eds. 2016. Policing the Planet: Why the Policing Crisis Led to Black Lives Matter. London: Verso Books.
Camp, Stephanie. 2004. Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Capeci, Dominic J., Jr., and Jack C. Knight. 1996. “Reckoning with Violence: W. E. B. Du Bois and the 1906 Atlanta Race Riot.” Journal of Southern History 62 (4): 727-66.
Carby, Hazel V. 1987. Reconstructing Womanhood: The Emergence of the Afro-American Woman Novelist. New York: Oxford University Press.
—. 1998. Race Men. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
—. 1999. Cultures in Babylon: Black Britain and African America. New York: Verso.
Carmichael, Stokely, and Charles Hamilton. (1967) 2003. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America. New York: Vintage.
Carrington, Ben. 2010. Race, Sport and Politics: The Sporting Diaspora. Los Angeles: Sage.
Carson, Clayborne. 1986. “Civil Rights Reform and the Black Freedom Struggle.” In The Civil Rights Movement in America, edited by Charles Eagles, 19-32. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.
Cartwright, Samuel. 1851. “Report on the Diseases and Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race.” New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, May, 691-715.
Cecelski, David, and Timothy Tyson, eds. 1998. Democracy Betrayed: The Wilmington Race Riot of 1898 and Its Legacy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Césaire, Aimé, et al. 1956. “Discussion: 20th September, at 9 p.m.: The 1st International Congress of Negro Writers and Artists: Full Account.” Presence Africaine: Cultural Journal of the Negro World 9:8-9.
Césaire, Aimé. (1972) 2000. Discourse on Colonialism. Translated by Joan Pinkham. New York: Monthly Review Press. French original published in 1950 and then, in a revised edition, in 1955.
Cha-Jua, Sundiata Keita, and Clarence Lang. 2007. “The ‘Long Movement’ as Vampire: Temporal and Spatial Fallacies in Recent Black Freedom Studies.” Journal of African American History 92 (2): 265-88.
Chandler, Nahum Dimitri. 2000. “Originary Displacement.” Boundary 2 27 (3): 249-86.
—. 2014. X: The Problem of the Negro as a Problem for Thought. New York: Fordham University Press.
Chang, Jeff. 2005. Can’t Stop, Won’t Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation. New York: St. Martin’s.
Chateauvert, Melinda. 1998. Marching Together: Women of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Chibber, Vivek. 2013. The Debate on Postcolonial Theory and the Specter of Capital. London: Verso.
Chicago Defender. (1919) 1998. “Jazzing Away Prejudice.” 10 May. Reprinted in Keeping Time: Readings in Jazz History, edited by Robert Walser, 15-16. New York: Oxford University Press. Citations refer to the reprinted edition.
Childers, Joseph, and Gary Hentzi, eds. 1995. Columbia Dictionary of Modern Literary and Cultural Criticism. New York: Columbia University Press.
Childs, Dennis. 2015. Slaves of the State: Black Incarceration from the Chain Gang to the Penitentiary. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Chireau, Yvonne. 2006. Black Magic: Religion and the African American Conjuring Tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cho, Sumi. 2009. “Post-Racialism.” Iowa Law Review 94:1589-1645.
Christian, Barbara. 1980. Black Women Novelists: The Development of a Tradition, 1892-1976. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
—. 1985. Black Women Novelists and Black Feminist Literary Criticism. New York: Pergamon.
Christie, Nils. 2000. Crime Control as Industry: Towards Gulags, Western Style. 3rd ed. London: Routledge.
Civil Rights Act. 1866. Ch. 31. 14 Stat. 27-30.
Civil Rights Congress (U.S.). 1970. We Charge Genocide: The Historic Petition to the United Nations for Relief from a Crime of the United States Government against the Negro People. New York: International.
Clarke, Cheryl. 1983. “The Failure to Transform.” In Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology, edited by Barbara Smith, 190-202. New York: Kitchen Table-Women of Color Press.
Clausewitz, Carl von. (1832) 1997. War, Politics, and Power. Washington, DC: Regnery.
Clayton, Obie, ed. 1996. An American Dilemma Revisited: Race Relations in a Changing World. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Clifford Larson, Kate. 2004. Bound for the Promised Land: Harriet Tubman, Portrait of an American Hero. New York: Random House.
Clinton, Catherine. 2004. Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom. New York: Little, Brown.
Coates, Ta-Nehisi. 2014. “The Case for Reparations.” Atlantic, June. www.theatlantic.com.
Cohen, Cathy J. 1999. Boundaries of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of Black Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
—. 2004. “Deviance as Resistance: A New Research Agenda for the Study of Black Politics.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 1 (1): 27-45.
Cohen, Stanley. 2002. Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge.
Cohn, Bernard S. 1996. Colonialism and Its Forms of Knowledge: The British in India. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Colapinto, John. 2008. “Outside Man: Spike Lee’s Celluloid Struggles.” New Yorker, 22 September, 52.
Collins, Patricia Hill. 1990. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness and the Politics of Empowerment. New York: Hyman.
—. 1998. Fighting Words: Black Women and the Search for Justice. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
—. 2013. On Intellectual Activism. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Combahee River Collective. 1978. “Combahee River Collective Statement.” In Capitalist Patriarchy and the Case for Socialist Feminism, edited by Zillah Eisenstein. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Common. 2007. “Southside.” Featuring Kanye West. Finding Forever. Interscope.
Cone, James H. 2003. “Martin and Malcolm: Integrationism and Nationalism in African American Religious History.” In Religion and American Culture: A Reader, 2nd ed., edited by David G. Hackett, 399-412. New York: Routledge.
Cooper, Anna J. 1998. The Voice of Anna Julia Cooper: Including “A Voice from the South” and Other Important Essays, Papers, and Letters. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Cooper, Frederick. 2002. Africa since 1940: The Past of the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Copeland, Huey. 2013. Bound to Appear: Art, Slavery, and the Site of Blackness in Multicultural America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cortez, Jayne. (1969) 1997. “How Long Has Trane Been Gone.” In The Norton Anthology of African American Literature, edited by Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Nellie McKay, 1957-59. New York: Norton.
Cott, Nancy. 1987. The Grounding of Modern Feminism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Cotten, Trystan T., ed. 2011. Trans Migrations: The Bodies, Borders, and Politics of Transition. New York: Routledge.
Cox, Aimee Meredith. 2015. Shapeshifters: Black Girls and the Choreography of Citizenship. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Craft, William. (1860) 1999. Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom: The Escape of William and Ellen Craft. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Crawford, Margo Natalie, and Lisa Gail Collins. 2008. New Thoughts on the Black Arts Movement. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Crawford, Margo Natalie. 2017. Black Post-Blackness: The Black Arts Movement and Twenty-First-Century Aesthetics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Crawley, Ashon T. 2008. “Circum-Religious Performance: Queer(ed) Black Bodies and the Black Church.” Theology and Sexuality 14 (2): 201-22.
Crenshaw, Kimberlé. 1989. “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics.” In “Feminism in the Law: Theory, Practice and Criticism.” Special issue, University of Chicago Legal Forum, 139-67.
—. 1991. “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color.” Stanford Law Review 43 (6): 1241-99.
Crosland, Alan, dir. 1927. The Jazz Singer. DVD. Warner Brothers, 2007.
Curtin, Mary Ellen. 2000. Black Prisoners and Their World: Alabama, 1865-1900. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
Curtin, Philip. 1972. The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Cuvier, Georges. 1817. Extraits d’observations faites sur le cadaver d’une femme connue a Paris et a Londre sous le nom de Venus Hottentote. Paris: Muséum national d’histoire naturelle.
D’Aguiar, Fred. 2015. Bloodlines. New York: Random House.
Dagbovie, Pero G. 2007. “History as a Core Subject Area of African American Studies: Self-Taught and Self-Proclaimed African American Historians, 1960s-1980s.” Journal of Black Studies 37 (5): 602-29.
—. 2017. “(Re)Introducing Foundational African American Historical Thought to a Twenty-First Century Readership.” Journal of African American History 102 (2): 232-41.
Dahl, Robert A. 1961. Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Daily News. 2017. “50 Cent Slams Jay-Z’s ‘4.44’ Album for Being ‘Too Smart.’” 6 July. www.dailynews.com.
Dangarembga, Tsitsi. 1988. Nervous Conditions. London: Women’s Press.
Daniel, Pete. 1990. Shadow of Slavery: Peonage in the South, 1901-1969. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Darwin, Charles. (1859) 2009. On the Origin of Species. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Davis, Angela Y. 1971a. If They Come in the Morning: Voices of Resistance. New York: Third Press.
Davis, Angela Y., and Elizabeth Martinez. 1994. “Coalition Building among People of Color.” Inscriptions (Center for Cultural Studies) 7. http://ccs.ihr.ucsc.edu.
—. 1971b. “Reflections on the Black Woman’s Role in the Community of Slaves.” Black Scholar 3 (December 1971): 2-15.
—. 1972. “Reflections on the Black Woman’s Role in the Community of Slaves.” Massachusetts Review 13 (1-2): 81-100. www.jstor.org.
—. 1975. “Interview with Angela Davis.” Social Justice 3 (Summer): 30-35.
—. 1981. Women, Race & Class. New York: Vintage Books.
—. 1998. “Racialized Punishment and Prison Abolition.” In The Angela Y. Davis Reader, edited by Joy James, 96-106. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
—. 2003. Are Prisons Obsolete? New York: Seven Stories.
—. 2005. Abolition Democracy: Beyond Empire, Prisons, and Torture. New York: Seven Stories.
Davis, Charles T., and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., eds. 1985. The Slave’s Narrative. New York: Oxford University Press.
Davis, F. James. 1991. Who Is Black? One Nation’s Definition. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Davis, Mike. 1990. City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles. London: Verso.
Davis, Uri. 1987. Israel: An Apartheid State. London: Zed Books.
Dawes, Kwame. 1996. Requiem: A Lament for the Dead. London: Peepal Tree.
Dawson, Michael C. 1994. Behind the Mule: Race and Class in African-American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Dearden, Lizzie. 2016. “Russia Withdraws Request for Warships to Refuel in Spanish Port of Ceuta on Way to Bomb Syria Amid Anger.” Independent, 26 October. www.independent.co.uk.
DeFrantz, Thomas F. 2001. Dancing Many Drums: Excavations in African American Dance. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
—. 2010. “Performing the Breaks: African American Aesthetic Structures” Theater 40 (1): 30-37.
Delany, Samuel. 1984. Starboard Wine: More Notes on the Language of Science Fiction. Pleasantville, NY: Dragon.
Deloria, Philip. 2015. “American Master Narratives and the Problem of Indian Citizenship in the Gilded Age and Progressive Era.” Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 14 (1): 3-12.
Deloria, Vine, Jr. 2003. God Is Red: A Native View of Religion. Golden, CO: Fulcrum.
Desai, Ashwin. 2002. We Are the Poors: Community Struggles in Post-Apartheid South Africa. New York: NYU Press.
Dillard, Cynthia B. 2000. “The Substance of Things Hoped For, the Evidence of Things Not Seen: Examining an Endarkened Feminist Epistemology in Educational Research and Leadership.” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 13 (6): 661-81.
Dillon, Stephen. 2012. “Possessed by Death: The Neoliberal-Carceral State, Black Feminism, and the Afterlife of Slavery.” Radical History Review 112 (Winter 2012): 113-25.
Diouf, Sylviane. 2014. Slavery’s Exiles: The Story of the American Maroons. New York: NYU Press.
Dirlik, Arif. 1994. “The Postcolonial Aura: Third World Criticism in the Age of Global Capitalism.” Critical Inquiry 20 (2): 328-56.
Dorman, Jacob S. 2013. Chosen People: The Rise of American Black Israelite Religions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Douglas, Davison. 2005. Jim Crow Moves North: The Battle over Northern School Segregation, 1865-1954. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Douglas, Kelly Brown. 1999. Sexuality and the Black Church: A Womanist Perspective. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.
Douglas, Susan. 2010. The Rise of Enlightened Sexism: How Pop Culture Took Us from Girl Power to Girls Gone Wild. New York: Macmillan.
Douglass, Frederick. (1845) 2009. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
—. (1863) 1975. “Colored Men, to Arms!” In A Documentary History of the Negro People of the United States, vol. 1, edited by Hebert Aptheker, 477-80. New York: Carol.
Downs, Gregory P. 2011. Declarations of Dependence: The Long Reconstruction of Popular Politics in the South, 1861-1908. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Drake, St. Clair. 1987. Black Folks Here and There: An Essay in History and Anthropology. Los Angeles: University of California Center for Afro-American Studies.
Drake, St. Clair, and Horace R. Cayton. 1945. Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Draper, Theodore, and Eric Foner. 1970. “Exchange on Black Nationalism.” New York Times Review of Books, 3 December, 6.
Dred Scott v. Sandford. 1857. 60 U.S. 393.
Driskell, Jay W. 2014. Schooling Jim Crow: The Fight for Atlanta’s Booker T. Washington High School and the Roots of Black Protest Politics. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
Du Bois, W. E. B. 1896. The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America, 1638-1870. New York: Longmans, Green.
—. 1897a. The Conservation of Races. American Negro Academy Occasional Papers 2. Washington, DC: American Negro Academy.
—. 1897b. “Strivings of the Negro People.” Atlantic Monthly 80 (August): 194-98.
—. (1899) 1996. The Philadelphia Negro. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
—. 1903. The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches. Chicago: A. C. McClurg.
—. 1917. “Massacre at East St. Louis.” Crisis 14 (September): 219-38.
—. 1920. Darkwater: Voices from Within the Veil. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe.
—. 1921. “Manifesto of the Second Pan-African Congress.” Crisis 23 (November): 5-6.
—. 1922. “Opinion of W. E. B. Du Bois.” Crisis 24 (August): 152-53.
—. 1934a. “Segregation.” Crisis 41 (January): 20.
—. 1934b. “Separation and Self-Respect.” Crisis 41 (March): 85.
—. (1935) 1998. Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880. New York: Free Press.
—. (1940) 2014. Dusk of Dawn: An Essay toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dubber, Markus Dirk. 2005. The Police Power: Patriarchy and the Foundations of American Government. New York: Columbia University Press.
DuBois, Ellen. 1978. Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women’s Movement in America, 1848-1869. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Dudziak, Mary L. 2000. Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Dugdale, Robert L. (1877) 1910. The Jukes: A Study in Crime, Pauperism, Disease, and Heredity. New York: Putnam.
Duggan, Lisa. 2000. Sapphic Slashers: Sex, Violence, and American Modernity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Dunbar, Elizabeth Armstrong. 2017. Never Caught: The Washingtons’ Relentless Pursuit of Their Runaway Slave, Ona Judge. New York: Artria.
Dungy, Camille T. 2010. Suck on the Marrow: Poems. Pasadena, CA: Red Hen.
Dupri, Jermaine. 2002. “Welcome to Atlanta.” So So Def: Definition of a Remix. Columbia/Sony Music Distribution.
Dussel, Enrique. (1985) 2003. Philosophy of Liberation. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock.
Duster, Troy. (1990) 2003. Backdoor to Eugenics. London: Routledge.
DuVernay, Ava, dir. 2016. 13th. Netflix.
Dworkin, Ira. 2017. Congo Love Song: African American Culture and the Crisis of the Colonial State. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
—. 2018. “Radwa Ashour, African American Criticism, and the Production of Modern Arabic Literature.” Cambridge Journal of Postcolonial Literary Inquiry 5 (1): 1-19.
E-40. 2006. “Tell Me When To Go.” My Ghetto Report Card. Reprise / Warner Bros. / BME.
Early, Gerald L, ed. 1993. Lure and Loathing: Essays on Race, Identity, and the Ambivalence of Assimilation. New York: Penguin.
Edwards, Brent Hayes. 2001. “The Uses of Diaspora.” Social Text 19 (1): 45-73.
—. 2003. The Practice of Diaspora: Literature, Translation, and the Rise of Black Internationalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Edwards, Erica R. 2012. Charisma and the Fictions of Black Leadership. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Edwards, Laura F. 1997. Gendered Strife and Confusion: The Political Culture of Reconstruction. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Elam, Harry J., Jr. 2001. “The Device of Race: An Introduction.” In African American Performance and Theater History: A Critical Reader, edited by Harry J. Elam Jr. and David Krasner, 3-16. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Elias, Norbert. 1965. Established and Outsiders. London: Sage.
Elkins, Caroline, and Susan Pederson, eds. 2005. Settler Colonialism in the Twentieth Century: Projects, Practices, Legacies. New York: Routledge.
Elkins, Stanley. 1959. Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ellington, Duke. (1973) 1976. Music Is My Mistress. New York: Da Capo, 1976.
Ellis, Trey. 1989. “The New Black Aesthetic.” Callaloo 38 (Winter): 233-43.
Ellison, Ralph. (1947) 1995. Invisible Man. New York: Vintage International.
—. 1986. Going to the Territory. New York: Random House.
—. 1995. Shadow and Act. New York: Quality Paperback Book Club.
English, Daylanne. 2004. “Blessed Are the Barren: Lynching, Reproduction, and the Drama of New Negro Womanhood, 1916-1930.” In Unnatural Selections: Eugenics in American Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance, 117-40. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Equiano, Olaudah. (1789) 1969. Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. New York: Negro Universities Press.
Essed, Philomena. 1991. Understanding Everyday Racism: An Interdisciplinary Theory. London: Sage.
Everett, Anna. 2001. Returning the Gaze: A Genealogy of Black Film Criticism, 1909-1949. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Ewing, Adam. 2014. The Age of Garvey: How a Jamaican Activist Created a Mass Movement and Changed Global Black Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Eze, Emmanuel Chukwudi, ed. 1997. Race and the Enlightenment: A Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Fanon, Frantz. 1952. Peau noire, masques blancs. Paris: Éditions du Seuil.
—. 1963. The Wretched of the Earth. Translated by Constance Farrington. New York: Grove.
—. (1967) 2008. Black Skin, White Masks. New York: Grove. French original published in 1952.
Farrag, Hebah H. 2015. “The Role of Spirit in the #BlackLivesMatter Movement: A Conversation with Activist and Artist Patrisse Cullors.” Religion Dispatches, June 24. http://religiondispatches.org.
Farred, Grant. 2008. “The Unsettler.” South Atlantic Quarterly 107 (4): 791-808.
Fauset, Arthur. 1944. Black Gods of the Metropolis: Negro Religious Cults of the Urban North. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Feagin, Joe, and Sean Elias. 2012. “Rethinking Racial Formation Theory: A Systemic Racism Critique.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 36 (6): 931-960.
Fergus, Devin. 2009. Liberalism, Black Power, and the Making of American Politics, 1965-1980. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Ferguson, Roderick. 2004. Aberrations in Black: Toward a Queer of Color Critique. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
—. 2005. “Of Our Normative Strivings: African American Studies and the Histories of Sexuality.” Social Text 84 (85): 85-100.
—. 2007. “Race.” In Keywords for American Cultural Studies, edited by Bruce Burgett and Glenn Hendler, 191-95. New York: NYU Press.
—. 2012. The Reorder of Things: The University and Its Pedagogies of Minority Difference. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Ferree, Myra Marx, and Beth B. Hess. 2000. Controversy and Coalition: The New Feminist Movement across Three Decades of Change. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge.
Ferree, Myra Marx, and Patricia Yancey Martin, eds. 1995. Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the New Women’s Movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Field, Allyson Nadia. 2015. Uplift Cinema: The Emergence of African American Film and the Possibility of Black Modernity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Fields, Barbara. 1985. Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
—. 1990. “Who Freed the Slaves?” In The Civil War: An Illustrated History, by Geoffrey Ward, with Ric Burns and Ken Burns, 178-81. New York: Knopf.
Fields, Karen E., and Barbara J. Fields. 2012. Racecraft: The Soul of Inequality in American Life. London: Verso Books.
Finch, Aisha K. 2015. Rethinking Slave Rebellion in Cuba: La Escalera and the Insurgencies of 1841-1844. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Findlay, Eileen J. Suárez. 2000. Imposing Decency: The Politics of Sexuality and Race in Puerto Rico, 1870-1920. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Firmin, Anténor. 2000. Equality of Human Races: A Nineteenth Century Haitian Scholar’s Response to European Racialism. Translated by Asselin Charles. New York: Garland.
Fleetwood, Nicole R. 2011. Troubling Vision: Performance, Visuality, and Blackness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
—. 2015. On Racial Icons: Blackness and the Public Imagination. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Floyd, Samuel A. 1995. The Power of Black Music: Interpreting Its History from Africa to the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.
Foner, Eric. 1988. Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877. New York: Harper and Row.
—. 1997. Introduction to The Betrayal of the Negro: From Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson, by Rayford W. Logan, xi-xvi. New York: Da Capo.
Ford, Tanisha C. 2015. Liberated Threads: Black Women, Style, and the Global Politics of Soul. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Forte, Maximillian. 2004-5. “Extinction: The Historical Trope of Anti-Indigeneity in the Caribbean.” Issues in Caribbean Amerindian Studies 6 (4): 1-24.
Foster, Frances Smith. 1993. Written by Herself: Literary Production by African American Women, 1746-1892. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Foucault, Michel. 1977. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated by Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage.
—. 1978. The History of Sexuality: Volume One. Translated by Robert Hurley. New York: Pantheon Books.
—. 1980. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972/1977. New York: Pantheon.
—. 2003. Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975-76. Edited by Mauro Bertani and Alessandro Fontana. Translated by David Macey. New York: Picador.
Francis, Megan Ming. 2014. Civil Rights and the Making of the Modern American State. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Francis, Vievee. 2006. Blue-Tail Fly. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
Franklin, John Hope, and Loren Schweninger. 1999. Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Franklin, John Hope. 1961. Reconstruction after the Civil War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
—. 1986. “On the Evolution of Scholarship in Afro-American History.” In The State of Afro-American History: Past, Present, and Future, edited by Darlene Clark Hine, 13-22. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
Frazier, E. Franklin. 1939. The Negro Family in the United States. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Freedman, Estelle B. 2013. Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Freund, Bill. (1984) 2016. The Development of African Society since 1800. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Freyre, Gilberto. (1933) 1964. The Masters and the Slaves. New York: Knopf.
Fuentes, Marisa. 2016. Dispossessed Lives: Enslaved Women, Violence, and the Archive. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Fussell, Paul. 2013. The Great War and Modern Memory. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gabbin, Joanne. 1997. “Furious Flower: African American Poetry, an Overview.” In The Oxford Companion to African American Literature, edited by William L. Andrews, Trudier Harris, and Frances Smith Foster. New York: Oxford University Press. www.english.illinois.edu.
Gaines, Kevin K. 1996. Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth Century. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
—. 2006. African Americans in Ghana: Black Expatriates and the Civil Rights Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Galton, Francis. 1833. Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development. London: Macmillan.
Gandhi, Leela. 1998. Postcolonial Theory: A Critical Introduction. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Gannon, Megan. 2016. “Race Is a Social Construct, Scientists Argue.” Scientific American, 5 February. www.scientificamerican.com.
Garland, Phyl. 1969. The Sound of Soul. Chicago: Regnery.
Garvey, Marcus. (1937) 1990. “Speech by Marcus Garvey.” 1 October 1937. In The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association, vol. 7, November 1927-August 1940, edited by Robert A. Hill, 788-94. Berkeley: University of California Press.
—. 2004. Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey. New York: Dover.
Gaspar, David Barry, and Darlene Clark Hine, eds. 1996. More than Chattel: Black Women and Slavery in the Americas. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Gaspar, David Barry. 1993. Bondmen and Rebels: A Study of Master-Slave Relations in Antigua. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. 2007. “The Black Letters on the Sign: W. E. B. Du Bois and the Canon.” In The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois, 19 vols., edited by Henry Louis Gates, Jr., xi-xxiv. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gatewood, Willard B. 1990. Aristocrats of Color: The Black Elite, 1880-1920. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Gay, Claudine, and Katherine Tate. 1998. “Doubly Bound: The Impact of Gender and Race on the Politics of Black Women.” Political Psychology 19 (1): 169-84.
Gay, Claudine, Jennifer L. Hochschild, and Ariel White. 2014. “Americans’ Belief in Linked Fate: A Wide Reach but Limited Impact.” Paper originally presented at the 2010 annual meeting of the American Political Science Association. http://ssrn.com.
Gaye, Marvin. 1973. “Inner City Blues.” Let’s Get It On. Synergy.
Gayle, Addison. 1971. The Black Aesthetic. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Gearan, Anne, and Abby Phillip. 2016. “Clinton Regrets 1996 Remark on ‘Super-Predators’ after Encounter with Activist.” Washington Post, 25 February. www.washingtonpost.com.
Genovese, Eugene. 1974. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Vintage.
George, Nelson. 2001. Buppies, B-Boys, Baps, and Bohos: Notes on Post-Soul Black Culture. New York: Da Capo.
Giddings, Paula. 1984. When and Where I Enter. New York: Quill William Morrow.
Gillespie, Dizzy, with Al Fraser. 1979. To Be, or Not . . . to Bop. New York: Da Capo.
Gillespie, Dizzy. 1947. “Groovin’ High.” Savoy.
Gillespie, Michael. 2016. Film Blackness: American Cinema and the Idea of Black Film. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Gilman, Sander L. 1985. “Black Bodies, White Bodies: Toward an Iconography of Female Sexuality in Late Nineteenth-Century Art, Medicine, and Literature.” Critical Inquiry 12 (1): 204-42.
Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. 1996. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Gilmore, Ruth Wilson. 2007. Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California. Berkeley: University of California Press.
—. 2015. “The Worrying State of the Anti-Prison Movement.” Social Justice: A Journal of Crime, Conflict & World Order, 23 February. www.socialjusticejournal.org.
Gilmore, Stephanie. 2008. Feminist Coalitions: Historical Perspectives on Second-Wave Feminism in the United Sates. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Gilroy, Paul. 1991. “‘It’s a Family Affair’: Black Culture and the Trope of Kinship.” In Small Acts: Thoughts on the Politics of Black Cultures, 192-207. London: Serpent’s Tail.
—. 1993. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
—. 1998. “Question of a ‘Soulful Style’: Interview with Paul Gilroy.” Interview by Richard C. Green and Monique Guillory. In Soul: Black Power, Politics, and Pleasure, edited by Monique Guillory and Richard C. Green, 250-66. New York: NYU Press.
—. 2000. Against Race: Imagining Political Culture beyond the Color Line. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
—. 2004. “Bold as Love? Jimi’s Afrocyberdelia and the Challenge of the Not Yet.” In Rip It Up: The Black Experience in Rock ’N Roll, edited by Kandia Crazy Horse, 25-38. New York: Palgrave.
—. 2005. Postcolonial Melancholia. New York: Columbia University Press.
Glare, P. G. W., ed. (1982) 2000. Oxford Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Glaude, Eddie S., Jr. 2010. “The Black Church Is Dead.” Huffington Post, 26 April. www.huffingtonpost.com.
—. 2014. African American Religion: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Glenn, Evelyn Nakano. 2002. Unequal Freedom: How Race and Gender Shaped American Citizenship and Labor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Glissant, Édouard. 1997. “For Opacity.” In Poetics of Relation, 189-94. Translated by Betsy Wing. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Glymph, Thavolia. 2008. Out of the House of Bondage: The Transformation of the Plantation Household. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
—. 2013. “Du Bois’s ‘Black Reconstruction and Slave Women’s War for Freedom.’” South Atlantic Quarterly 112 (Summer): 489-505.
Gobineau, Arthur. 1915. The Inequality of Human Races. Translated by Adrian Collins. London: Heinemann. Internet Archive, https://archive.org.
Goings, Kenneth W. 1994. Mammy and Uncle Mose: Black Collectibles and American Stereotyping. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.
Goldberg, David Theo. 2009. The Threat of Race: Reflections on Racial Neoliberalism. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Goldenberg, David M. 2003. The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gomez, Michael A. 1998. Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
—. 2005. Reversing Sail: A History of the African Diaspora. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gooding-Williams, Robert. 2009. In the Shadow of Du Bois: Afro-Modern Political Thought in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gordon, Avery. 1997. Ghostly Matters: Haunting and the Sociological Imagination. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Gordon, Lewis R. 1999. Bad Faith and Antiblack Racism. New York: Humanity Books.
Gore, Dayo F. 2011. Radicalism at the Crossroads: African American Women Activists in the Cold War. New York: NYU Press.
Gossett, Thomas F. (1963) 1989. Race: The History of an Idea in America. New York: Schocken Books.
Gottschild, Brenda Dixon. 1996. Digging the Africanist Presence in American Dance. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
—. 2003. The Black Dancing Body: A Geography from Coon to Cool. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Gould, Stephen Jay. 1994. “The Geometer of Race.” Discover 15 (11): 65-69.
—. 1996. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: Norton.
Goyal, Yogita. 2010. Romance, Diaspora, and Black Atlantic Literature. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gramsci, Antonio. 1971. Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci. Edited and translated by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell-Smith. New York: International.
Grant, Jacquelyn. (1979) 1993. “Black Theology and the Black Woman.” In Black Theology: A Documentary History, vol. 1, 1966-1979, edited by James H. Cone and Gayraud S. Wilmore, 323-38. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.
—. 1989. White Women’s Christ and Black Women’s Jesus: Feminist Christology and Womanist Response. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.
Graves, Joseph L., Jr. 2015. “Great Is Their Sin: Biological Determinism in the Age of Genomics.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 661 (1): 24-50.
Gray, Herman. 1995. Watching Race: Television and the Struggle for “Blackness.” Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
—. 2005. Cultural Moves: African Americans and the Politics of Representation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Green, Jonathan. 1986. Baptism of Sue Mae. Oil on masonite. www.jonathangreenstudios.com.
Green, Kai M., and Treva Ellison. 2014. “Keywords: Tranifest.” TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly 1 (1-2): 222-25.
Green, Lorenzo. 1944. “Mutiny on the Slave Ships.” Phylon 5:346-54.
Greer, Christina M. 2013. Black Ethnics: Race, Immigration, and the Pursuit of the American Dream. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Griffin, Farah Jasmine. 2013. Harlem Nocturne: Women Artists and Progressive Politics during World War II. New York: BasicCivitas Books.
Griffin, Horace L. 2006. Their Own Receive Them Not: African American Lesbians and Gays in Black Churches. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim.
Grimké, Angelina Weld. (1916) 1998. “Rachel.” In Strange Fruit: Plays on Lynching by African American Women, edited by Kathy A. Perkins and Judith L. Stephens, 27-91. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Gross, Ariela J. 2008. What Blood Won’t Tell: A History of Race on Trial in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gross, Kali Nicole. 2006. Colored Amazons: Crime, Violence, and Black Women in the City of Brotherly Love, 1880-1910. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Grossman, James R. 1989. Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Grosz, Elizabeth. 1998. “Bodies-Cities.” In Places through the Body, edited by Heidi J. Nast and Steve Pile, 31-38. New York: Routledge.
Guardian. 1960. “Marred: M. Lumumba’s Offensive Speech in King’s Presence.” 1 July. www.theguardian.com.
Guerrero, Ed. 1993. Framing Blackness: The African-American Image in Film. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Guidotti-Hernández, Nicole M. 2011. Unspeakable Violence: Remapping U.S. and Mexican National Imaginaries. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Guillory, Monique, and Richard C. Green, eds. 1998. Soul: Black Power, Politics, and Pleasure. New York: NYU Press.
Gunning, Sandra. 1995. Race, Rape, and Lynching: The Red Record of American Literature. New York: Oxford University Press.
Guridy, Frank Andre. 2010. Forging Diaspora: Afro-Cubans and African Americans in a World of Empire and Jim Crow. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Gutman, Herbert G. 1977. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925. New York: Vintage.
Guy-Sheftall, Beverly, ed. 1995. Words of Fire: An Anthology of African-American Feminist Thought. New York: New Press.
Hahn, Stephen. 2003. A Nation under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Halberstam, Judith (Jack). 2007. “Queer Voices and Musical Genders.” In Oh Boy! Masculinities and Popular Music, edited by Freya Jarman Ivens, 183-96. New York: Routledge.
Haley, Sarah. 2016. No Mercy Here: Gender, Punishment, and the Making of Jim Crow Modernity. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd. 2005. “The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past.” Journal of American History 91 (4): 1233-63.
Hall, Stuart, Chas Critcher, Tony Jefferson, John Clarke, and Brian Roberts. 1978. Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order. London: Macmillan.
Hall, Stuart. 1980. “Race, Articulation and Societies Structured in Dominance.” In Sociological Theories: Race and Colonialism, 305-45. Paris: UNESCO.
—. (1989) 1996. “New Ethnicities.” In Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies, edited by David Morley and Kuan-Hsing Chen, 442-51. New York: Routledge.
—. 1990. “Cultural Identity and Diaspora.” In Identity: Community, Culture, Difference, edited by Jonathan Rutherford, 222-37. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
—. 1992. “What Is This ‘Black’ in Black Popular Culture?” In Black Popular Culture, edited by Gina Dent, 21-33. Seattle: Bay.
Hallam, Henry. (1837) 1876. Introduction to the Literature of Europe, in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Centuries. Vol. 1. London: John Murray.
Halliwell, Stephen. 1998. Aristotle’s Poetics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hamer, Fannie Lou. 1964. “Jim Crow Medical Care Hit.” Memphis World, 8 May, 8.
Hanchard, Michael. 2004. “Black Transnationalism, Africana Studies, and the 21st Century.” Journal of Black Studies 35 (2): 139-53.
Hannett, Leo. 1971. “The Niugini Black Power Movement.” In Tertiary Students and the Politics of Papua New Guinea, 41-51. Lae: Papua New Guinea Institute of Technology.
Hansberry, Lorraine. 1958. A Raisin in the Sun. New York: Vintage.
Hanssen, Beatrice. 2000. Critique of Violence: Between Poststructuralism and Critical Theory. New York: Routledge.
Harding, Sandra. 2009. “Standpoint Theories: Productively Controversial.” Hypatia 24 (4): 192-200.
Harding, Vincent. 1981. There Is a River: The Black Struggle for Freedom in America. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Harney, Stefano, and Fred Moten. 2013. The Undercommons: Fugitive Planning and Black Study. London: Minor Compositions.
Harper, Frances Ellen Watkins. (1892) 1988. Iola Leroy, or, Shadows Uplifted. New York: Oxford University Press.
Harper, Phillip Brian. 1996. Are We Not Men? Masculine Anxiety and the Problem of African-American Identity. New York: Oxford University Press.
Harris, Joseph. 1971. The African Presence in Asia: Consequences of the East African Slave Trade. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
—, ed. (1982) 1993a. Global Dimensions of the African Diaspora. Washington, DC: Howard University Press.
—. (1982) 1993b. Introduction to Global Dimensions of the African Diaspora, edited by Joseph E. Harris, 3-14. Washington, DC: Howard University Press.
Harrison, Paul Carter. 1989. In the Shadow of the Great White Way: Images from the Black Theatre. New York: Thunder’s Mouth.
Hart, William D. 2006. “Three Rival Narratives of Black Religion.” In A Companion to African-American Studies, edited by Lewis R. Gordon and Jane Anna Gordon, 476-93. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
—. 2008. Black Religion: Malcolm X, Julius Lester, and Jan Willis. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hartman, Saidiya. 1996. “Seduction and the Ruses of Power.” Callaloo 19 (2): 537-60.
—. 1997. Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-Making in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press.
—. 2002. “The Time of Slavery.” South Atlantic Quarterly 101 (Fall): 757-77.
—. 2007. Lose Your Mother: A Journey along the Atlantic Slave Route. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
—. 2016. “The Belly of the World: A Note on Black Women’s Labors.” Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society 18 (January-March): 166-73.
Hayden, Robert. (1966) 2013. “Frederick Douglass.” In Collected Poems, edited by Frederick Glaysher, 62. New York: Liveright.
Hegel, Georg W. F. (1837) 1899. The Philosophy of History. Translated by John Sibree. New York: Colonial.
Heinze, Denise. 1993. The Dilemma of “Double-Consciousness”: Toni Morrison’s Novels. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Henderson, Mae Gwendolyn. (1993) 2000. “Speaking in Tongues: Dialogics, Dialectics, and the Black Woman Writer’s Literary Tradition.” In African American Literary Theory: A Reader, edited by Winston Napier, 348-68. New York: NYU Press.
Hendricks, Wanda. 2013. Fannie Barrier Williams: Crossing Borders of Region and Race. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Heng, Geraldine. 2011. “The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages I & 2: Race Studies, Modernity, and the Middle Ages.” Literature Compass 8 (5): 258-74.
Henwood, Doug. 2000. “Profiteering in the Hemisphere.” NACLA Report on the Americas 34 (3): 49-59.
Herbert, Bob. 2008. “The Obama Phenomenon.” New York Times, 5 January, A15.
Herrnstein, Richard J., and Charles Murray. 1994. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: Free Press.
Herzing, Rachel. 2015. “‘Tweaking Armageddon’: The Potential and Limits of Conditions of Confinement Campaigns.” Social Justice 41:190-96.
Hicks, Cheryl. 2010. Talk with You like a Woman: African American Women: Justice, and Reform in New York, 1890-1935. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Higginbotham, A. Leon, Jr. 1980. In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period. New York: Oxford University Press.
Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks. 1993. Righteous Discontent: The Women’s Movement in the Black Baptist Church. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Higginson, John. 2014. Collective Violence and the Agrarian Origins of South African Apartheid, 1900-1948. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hill, Edwin C., Jr. 2013. Black Soundscapes White Stages: The Meaning of Francophone Sound in the Black Atlantic. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Hill, Myrna. 1971. “Feminism and Black Nationalism.” Militant, 2 April.
Hine, Darlene Clark. 1986. “Lifting the Veil, Shattering the Silence: Black Women’s History in Slavery and Freedom.” In The State of Afro-American History: Past, Present, and Future, edited by Darlene Clark Hine, 224-49. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
—. 1989. “Rape and the Inner Lives of Black Women in the Middle West: Preliminary Thoughts on the Culture of Dissemblance.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 14 (4): 912-20.
—. 1994. Hine Sight: Black Women and the Re-construction of American History. Brooklyn, NY: Carlson.
—. 2003. “Black Professionals and Race Consciousness: Origins of the Civil Rights Movement, 1890-1950.” Journal of American History 89:1279-94.
Hoby, Hermione. 2014. “Ellen Willis Rock On.” Times Literary Supplement, 13 August. www.the-tls.co.uk.
Hochschild, Adam. 1998. King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Holt, Thomas C. 1979. Black over White: Negro Political Leadership in South Carolina during Reconstruction. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
hooks, bell. 1992. Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End.
—. 2015. Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics. New York: Routledge.
Hopkins, Pauline E. (1899) 1969. Contending Forces: A Romance Illustrative of Negro Life North and South. Miami, FL: Mnemo.
Horne, Gerald. 1997. Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s. New York: Da Capo.
—. 2014. The Counter-revolution of 1776: Slave Resistance and the Origins of the United States of America. New York: NYU Press.
Horton, George Moses. 1997. The Black Bard of North Carolina: George Moses Horton and His Poetry. Edited by Joan R. Sherman. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Hucks, Tracey E. 2012. Yoruba Traditions and African American Religion Nationalism. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Hughes, Langston. (1926) 1995. “The Negro Speaks of Rivers.” In The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes, edited by Arnold Rampersad, 23. New York: Vintage Books.
—. (1926) 1998. “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain.” Nation, 23 June, 692-93. Reprinted in Keeping Time: Readings in Jazz History, edited by Robert Walser, 55-57. New York: Oxford University Press. Citations refer to the reprinted edition.
—. (1931) 1995. “House in the World” (formerly “White Shadows”). In The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes, edited by Arnold Rampersad, 138. New York: Vintage Classics.
—. (1940) 1959. “Notes on Commercial Theater.” In Selected Poems, 190. New York: Knopf.
—. (1940) 1993. The Big Sea: An Autobiography. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
—. (1966) 1997. “200 Years of American Negro Poetry.” Transition 75/76:90-96.
Hull, Gloria T., Patricia Bell-Scott, and Barbara Smith, eds. 1982. All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, but Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women’s Studies. New York: Feminist Press.
Hunter, Tera. 1997. To ’Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labors after the Civil War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
—. 2017. Bound in Wedlock: Slave and Free Black Marriage in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hurston, Zora Neale. (1928) 2004. “How It Feels to Be Colored Me.” In The Norton Anthology of African American Literature, 2nd ed., edited by Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Nellie Y. McKay, 1030-33. New York: Norton.
—. (1934) 1984. “Characteristics of Negro Expression.” In Negro: An Anthology, edited by Nancy Cunard and Hugh Ford, 39-61. New York: Frederick Unger.
—. (1934) 2008. Jonah’s Gourd Vine: A Novel. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
—. (1935) 2008. Of Mules and Men. New York: Harper Perennial.
—. (1937) 1990. Their Eyes Were Watching God. New York: Perennial Library.
—. (1942) 1971. Dust Tracks on a Road: An Autobiography. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
—. 1981. The Sanctified Church. Berkeley, CA: Turtle Island.
—. 1990. Tell My Horse: Voodoo and Life in Haiti and Jamaica. New York: Perennial.
Ibrahim, Habiba. 2012. Troubling the Family: The Promise of Personhood and the Rise of Multiracialism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Ignatin, Noel. 1967. “White Blindspot.” In Understanding and Fighting White Supremacy, edited by Noel Ignatin and Ted Allen. Chicago: Sojourner Truth Organization. www.sojournertruth.net.
Incite!/Critical Resistance. 2014. “Statement on Gender and the Prison Industrial Complex.” In “Interchange: The History of Capitalism.” Journal of American History 101 (September): 503-36.
Inikori, Joseph E. 1983. Forced Migration: The Impact of the Export Slave Trade on African Societies. New York: Holmes and Meier.
—. 2002. Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England: A Study in International Trade and Economic Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Iton, Richard. 2008. In Search of the Black Fantastic: Politics and Popular Culture in the Post-Civil Rights Era. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ivy, Nicole. 2016. “Bodies of Work: A Meditation on Medical Imaginaries and Enslaved Women.” Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society 18 (1): 11-31.
Jackson, George. 1972. Blood in My Eye. New York: Random House.
Jackson, Shona N. 2012. Creole Indigeneity: Between Myth and Nation in the Caribbean. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Jacobs, Harriet A. (1861) 1988. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jacobs, Margaret D. 2009. White Mothers to a Dark Race: Settler Colonialism, Maternalism, and the Removal of Indigenous Children in the American West and Australia. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Jacobson, Matthew Frye. 1998. Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jacoby, Karl. 2008. Shadows at Dawn: A Borderlands Massacre and the Violence of History. New York: Penguin.
Jaji, Tsitsi. 2014. Africa in Stereo: Modernism, Music, and Pan-African Solidarity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jakobson, Roman. 1987. “What Is Poetry?” In Language in Literature, 368-78. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
James, C. L. R. 1938. The Black Jacobins. New York: Dial.
James, Etta, and David Ritz. 2003. Rage to Survive: The Etta James Story. New York: Da Capo.
James, Jennifer C. 2007. Freedom Bought with Blood: African American War Literature from the Civil War to World War II. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
—. 2012. “Blessed Are the Warmakers: Martin Luther King, Vietnam, and the Black Prophetic Tradition.” In Fighting Words and Images: Representing War across the Disciplines, edited by Stephan Jaeger, Elena V. Baraban, and Adam Muller, 165-84. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
James, Joy. 2005. New Abolitionists: (Neo)Slave Narratives and Contemporary Prison Writings. Albany: SUNY Press.
James, Winston. 1998. Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in Early Twentieth-Century America. London: Verso.
Jameson, Fredric. 1982. “Progress versus Utopia: Or, Can We Imagine the Future?” Science Fiction Studies 9 (2): 147-58.
Jarrett, Gene Andrew. 2006. “‘For Endless Generations’: Myth, Dynasty, and Frank Yerby’s The Foxes of Harrow.” Southern Literary Journal 39 (1): 54-70.
Jay-Z. 1998. “Hard Knock Life (Ghetto Anthem).” Roc-A-Fella Records.
—. 2009. “Empire State of Mind.” The Blueprint 3. Virgin EMI.
Jaynes, Gerald David. 1986. Branches without Roots: Genesis of the Black Working Class in the American South, 1862-1882. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jefferson, Thomas. (1781) 1984. Notes on the State of Virginia. In Writings, 123-325. New York: Library of America.
Jenkins, Candice M. 2007. Private Lives, Proper Relations: Regulating Black Intimacy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Johnson, E. Patrick. 2003. Appropriating Blackness: Performance and the Politics of Authenticity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Johnson, E. Patrick, and Mae Henderson, eds. 2005. Black Queer Studies: A Critical Anthology. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Johnson, James Weldon. (1912) 1995. The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. New York: Dover.
—. (1930) 1972. Black Manhattan. New York: Atheneum.
Johnson, Rashauna. 2016. Slavery’s Metropolis: Unfree Labor in New Orleans during the Age of Revolutions. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Johnson, Walter. 2013. River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jones, Gayl. (1975) 1986. Corregidora. Boston: Beacon.
—. (1976) 1987. Eva’s Man. Boston: Beacon.
Jones, Jacqueline. 1985. Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work and the Family, from Slavery to the Present. New York: Basic Books.
Jones, Jo, and William D. Mosher. 2013. Fathers’ Involvement with Their Children: United States, 2006-2010. National Health Statistics Reports 71. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services. www.cdc.gov.
Jones, Kellie. 2011. Now Dig This! Art and Black Los Angeles, 1960-1980. New York: Presetel.
Jones, LeRoi. 1963. Blues People: Negro Music in White America. New York: William Morrow.
—. 1967. Black Music. New York: William Morrow.
Jones, Martha S. 2007. All Bound Up Together: The Woman Question in African American Public Culture, 1830-1900. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Jones, Meta DuEwa. 2011. The Muse Is Music: Jazz Poetry from the Harlem Renaissance to Spoken Word. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Jordan, June. 1981. “Black Studies: Bringing Back the Person.” In Civil Wars: Observations from the Front Lines of America, 45-55. New York: Simon and Schuster.
—. 1985. On Call: Political Essays. Boston: South End.
—. 2002a. “The Difficult Miracle of Black Poetry in America.” In Some of Us Did Not Die: New and Selected Essays of June Jordan, 174-86. New York: Basic.
—. 2002b. “Requiem for the Champ.” In Some of Us Did Not Die: New and Selected Essays of June Jordan, 120-24. New York: Basic.
Jordan, Winthrop. 1968. White over Black: American Attitudes towards the Negro, 1550-1812. University of North Carolina Press.
Jorjani, Raha. 2015. “Could Black People in the U.S. Qualify as Refugees?” Washington Post, 14 August. www.washingtonpost.com.
Judy, Ronald. 1991. “Kant and the Negro.” Surfaces 1 (8): 1-70.
K’naan. 2005. The Dusty Foot Philosopher. BMG Music.
Kaba, Mariame. 2015. “Summer Heat.” New Inquiry, 8 June.
Kahn, Jonathan. 2012. Race in a Bottle: The Story of BiDil and Racialized Medicine in a Post-Genomic Age. New York: Columbia University Press.
Kale, Madhavi. 1998. Fragments of Empire: Capital, Slavery, and Indian Indentured Labor Migration to the British Caribbean. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Kandaswamy, Priya. 2016. “Centering Prison Abolition in Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies.” Scholar and the Feminist Online 13 (2). http://sfonline.barnard.edu.
Kangam Squad. 2013. Hip Hopology. Soulfood Edutainment.
Kauanui, J. Kēhaulani. 2016. “A Structure, Not an Event: Settler Colonialism and Enduring Indigeneity.” Lateral: Journal of the Cultural Studies Association 5 (1). http://csalateral.org.
Kauanui, J. Kēhaulani, and Patrick Wolfe. 2012. “Settler Colonialism Then and Now: A Conversation between J. Kēhaulani Kauanui and Patrick Wolfe.” Politica & Societá 1 (2): 235-58.
Kazanjian, David. 2014. “Colonial.” In Keywords in American Cultural Studies, 2nd ed., edited by Bruce Burgett and Glenn Hendler, 48-52. New York: NYU Press.
Kearney, Douglas. 2009. “Swimchant for Nigger Mer-folk (An Aquaboogie Set in Lapis).” In The Black Automaton, 62-63. Albany, NY: Fence Books.
Keaton, Trica. 2006. Muslim Girls and the Other France: Race, Identity Politics, and Social Exclusion. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
—. 2013. “Racial Profiling and the ‘French Exception.’” French Cultural Studies 24 (2): 231-42.
Keita, S. O. Y., and Rick A. Kittles. 1997. “The Persistence of Racial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence.” American Anthropologist 99 (1997): 534-44.
Kelley, Robin D. G. (1990) 2015. Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists during the Great Depression. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
—. 1994. Race Rebels: Culture, Politics, and the Black Working Class. New York: Free Press.
—. 1998. Yo’ Mama’s Disfunktional! Fighting the Culture Wars in Urban America. Boston: Beacon.
—. 2002. Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination. Boston: Beacon.
—. 2012. Africa Speaks, American Answers: Modern Jazz in Revolutionary Times. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kelly, Erin, and Frank Dobbin. 1998. “How Affirmative Action Became Diversity Management: Employer Response to Anti-discrimination Law, 1961-1996.” American Behavioral Scientist 41 (7): 960-84.
Kendi, Ibram X. 2012. The Black Campus Movement: Black Students and the Racial Reconstitution of Higher Education, 1965-1972. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
—. 2016. Stamped from the Beginning: The Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America. New York: Nation Books.
Kim, Mimi. 2011-12. “Moving beyond Critique: Creative Interventions and Reconstructions of Community Accountability.” Social Justice 37 (2011-12): 14-35.
Kincaid, Jamaica. 1988. A Small Place. New York: Plume.
King, Deborah. 1988. “Multiple Jeopardy, Multiple Consciousness: The Context of Black Feminist Ideology.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 14(1): 88-111
King, Martin Luther, Jr. (1965) 1991. “Next Stop: The North.” In A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr., edited by and James M. Washington, 189-94. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco.
—. 1967. Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? New York: Beacon.
Kitwana, Bakari. 2002. The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African-American Culture. New York: BasicCivitas Books.
Kletzing, H. F., and W. H. Crogman. 1898. Progress of a Race, or, The Remarkable Advancement of the Colored American. Rev. ed. Atlanta: J. L. Nichols.
Knight, Franklin W. 1990. The Caribbean: The Genesis of Fragmented Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kohler-Hausmann, Julilly. 2017. Getting Tough: Welfare and Imprisonment in 1970s America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kohn, Margaret. 2014. “Colonialism.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta. http://plato.stanford.edu.
Kornbluh, Felicia. 2007. Battle for Welfare Rights: Politics and Poverty in Modern America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Kraditor, Aileen. 1981. The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1890-1920. New York: Norton.
Kramer, Paul. 2015. “Imperial Openings: Civilization, Exemption, and the Geopolitics of Mobility in the History of Chinese Exclusion.” Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 14 (3): 317-47.
Krasner, David. 2002. A Beautiful Pageant: African American Theatre, Drama and Performance in the Harlem Renaissance, 1910-1927. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Krenn, Michael. 2006. The Color of Empire: Race and American Foreign Relations. Washington, DC: Potomac Books.
KRS-One. 2007. Hip Hop Lives. Marley Marl.
—. 2009. The Gospel of Hip-Hop: The First Instrument. Brooklyn, NY: powerHouse Books.
Kunzel, Regina. 2008. Criminal Intimacy: Prison and the Uneven History of Modern American Sexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ladner, Joyce, ed. (1973) 1998. The Death of White Sociology: Essays on Race and Culture. Baltimore: Black Classic.
Laguerre, Michel. 1998. Diasporic Citizenship: Haitian Americans in Transnational America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Lamar, Kendrick. 2011. “HiiiPower.” Top Dawg.
Lapsansky-Werner, and Margaret Hope Bacon. 2005. Benjamin Coates and the Colonization Movement in America, 1848-1880. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Larsen, Nella. (1928) 1986. Quicksand. In “Quicksand” and “Passing,” edited by Deborah E. McDowell, 1-142. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
—. (1929) 1986. Passing. In “Quicksand” and “Passing,” edited by Deborah E. McDowell, 143-243. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Lawson, Steven. 2004. To Secure These Rights: The Report of Harry S. Truman’s Committee on Civil Rights. New York: Bedford / St. Martin’s.
Lee, Erika. 2003. At America’s Gates: Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Lee, Rachel. 2000. “Notes from the (Non)Field: Teaching and Theorizing Women of Color.” Meridians 1 (1): 85-109.
Lee, Spike, dir. 2016. Redemption Song. ESPN Films.
Lefebvre, Henri. 2006. Writings on Cities. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
LeFlouria, Talitha L. 2015. Chained in Silence: Black Women and Convict Labor in the New South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Lemons, J. Stanley. 1977. “Black Stereotypes as Reflected in Popular Culture, 1880-1920.” American Quarterly 29 (1): 102-16.
Leonard, Keith D. 2006. Fettered Genius: The African American Bardic Poet from Slaver to Civil Rights. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
Leong, Karen J. 2001. “‘A Distinct and Antagonistic Race’: Constructions of Chinese Manhood in the Exclusionist Debates, 1869-1878.” In Across the Great Divide: Centuries of Manhood in the American West, edited by Matthew Basso, Laura McCall, and Dee Garceau, 131-48. New York: Routledge.
Lerner, Gerda. 1972. Black Women in White America: A Documentary History. New York: Vintage Books.
Lernoux, Penny. 1980. Cry of the People: United States Involvement in the Rise of Fascism, Torture, and Murder and the Persecution of the Catholic Church in Latin America. New York: Doubleday.
Levine, Lawrence. 1990. Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Levy-Hinte, Jeff, dir. 2008. Soul Power. Antidote Films.
Lew-Williams, Beth. 2014. “Before Restriction Became Exclusion: America’s Experiment in Diplomatic Immigration Control.” Pacific Historical Review 83 (1): 24-56.
Lewis, David Levering. 1994. W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868-1919. New York: Holt.
—. 2000. W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century, 1919-1963. New York: Holt.
Library of Congress, with David Levering Lewis and Deborah Willis. 2003. A Small Nation of People: W. E. B. Du Bois and African American Portraits of Progress. New York: Amistad.
Lichtenstein, Alex. 1996. Twice the Work of Free Labor: The Political Economy of Convict Labor in the New South. New York: Verso.
Lien, Pei-Te, Margaret Conway, and Janelle Wong. 2004. The Politics of Asian Americans: Diversity and Community. New York: Routledge.
Lightfoot, Natasha. 2015. Troubling Freedom: Antigua and the Aftermath of British Emancipation. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Lincoln, C. Eric. 1961. The Black Muslims in America. Boston: Beacon.
Lincoln, C. Eric, and Lawrence H. Mamiya. 1990. The Black Church in the African American Experience. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Linebaugh, Peter, and Marcus Rediker. 2000. The Many-Headed Hydra: Sailors, Slaves, Commoners, and the Hidden History of the Revolutionary Atlantic. Boston: Beacon.
Linnaei, Caroli. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Stockholm: Impensis Direct.
Litwack, Leon F. 1998. Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow. New York: Knopf.
Livermon, Xavier. 2018. “It’s about Time: Kwaito and the Performance of Freedom.” Unpublished ms.
Logan, Rayford. (1954) 1965. The Negro in American Life and Thought: The Nadir, 1877-1901. Republished as The Betrayal of the Negro: From Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson. New York: Collier. Citations refer to the republished edition.
Lombroso, Cesare, and Guillaume Ferrero. 1893. La donna delinquente: La prostituta e la donna normale. Turin: Fratelli Bocca.
Lombroso, Cesare. (1876) 2006. Criminal Man. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Long, Edward. 1774. History of Jamaica. Vol. 2. London: T. Lowndes.
Long, Jeffrey C., and Rick A. Kittles. 2009. “Human Genetic Diversity and the Nonexistence of Biological Races.” Human Biology 81 (5-6): 777-98.
Loomba, Ania. (1998) 2005. Colonialism/Postcolonialism. New York: Routledge.
Lorde, Audre. 1984. Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches. Trumansburg, NY: Crossing.
—. 2007. “Poetry Is Not a Luxury.” In Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches, 36-39. Berkeley, CA: Crossing.
Lordi, Emily J. 2016a. “James Baldwin and the Sound of Soul.” CR: The New Centennial Review 16 (2): 31-45.
—. 2016b. “Souls Intact: The Soul Performances of Audre Lorde, Nina Simone, and Aretha Franklin.” Women & Performance 26 (3): 55-71.
Lott, Eric. 1993. Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Loving v. Virginia. 1967. 388 U.S. 1.
Loyd, Jenna, Matt Mitchelson, and Andrew Burridge, eds. 2012. Beyond Walls and Cages: Prisons, Borders, and Global Crisis. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Lubiano, Wahneema. 1996a. “‘But Compared to What?’: Reading Realism, Representation, and Essentialism in School Daze, Do the Right Thing, and the Spike Lee Discourse.” In Representing Black Men, edited by Marcellus Blount and George P. Cunningham, 173-204. New York: Routledge.
—. 1996b. “Mapping the Interstices between Afro-American Cultural Discourse and Cultural Studies: A Prolegomenon.” Callaloo 19 (1): 67-77.
Lugones, Maria. 2003. Pilgrimages/Peregrinajes: Theorizing Coalition against Multiple Oppressions. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Lui, Mary Ting-Ying. 2005. The Chinatown Trunk Mystery: Murder, Miscegenation, and Other Dangerous Encounters in Turn-of-the-Century New York City. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Lumpkins, Charles. 2008. American Pogrom: The East St. Louis Race Riot and Black Politics. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Mackey, Nathaniel. 1993. Discrepant Engagement: Dissonance, Cross-Culturality, and Experimental Writing. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
MacLean, Nancy. 2000. “The Leo Frank Case Reconsidered: Gender and Sexual Politics in the Making of Reactionary Populism.” In Jumpin’ Jim Crow: Southern Politics from Civil War to Civil Rights, edited by Jane Dailey, Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, and Bryant Simon, 183-218. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Magness, Phillip W., and Sebastian N. Page. 2011. Colonization after Emancipation: Lincoln and the Movement for Black Resettlement. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
Mahon, Maureen. 2004. The Right to Rock: The Black Rock Coalition and the Cultural Politics of Race. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
—. 2005. “Rock.” In African American Music: An Introduction, edited by Mellonee V. Burnim and Portia K. Maultsby, 558-84. New York: Routledge.
Majors, Monroe Alphus. 1893. Noted Negro Women: Their Triumphs and Activities. Jackson, TN: M. V. Lynk.
Makalani, Minkah. 2011. In the Cause of Freedom: Radical Black Internationalism from Harlem to London, 1917-1939. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Malcolm X. (1964) 1994. “The Ballot or the Bullet.” In Malcolm X Speaks: Select Speeches and Statements, edited by George Breitman, 23-44. New York: Grove.
Mamdani, Mahmood. 1996. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
—. 2001. “Beyond Settler and Native as Political Identities: Overcoming the Political Legacy of Colonialism.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 43 (4): 651-64.
—. 2002. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Mancini, Matthew. 1996. One Dies, Get Another: Convict Leasing in the American South, 1866-1928. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
Mangcu, Xolela. 2012. Biko: A Biography. London: I .B. Taurus.
Manigault-Bryant, LeRhonda S. 2014. Talking to the Dead: Religion, Music, and Lived Memory among Gullah/Geechee Women. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Mannix, Daniel P., and Malcolm Cowley. 1962. Black Cargoes: A History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1518-1865. New York: Penguin Books.
Marable, Manning. 1984. Race, Reform, and Rebellion: The Second Reconstruction in Black America, 1945-1982. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.
—. 2007. Race, Reform and Rebellion: The Second Reconstruction and Beyond in Black America, 1945-2006. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.
Marley, Bob. 1979. “Africa Unite.” Survival. Island / Tuff Gong.
Marriott, David. 2000. On Black Men. New York: Columbia University Press.
—. 2011. “Inventions of Existence: Sylvia Wynter, Frantz Fanon, Sociogeny, and ‘the Damned.’” Centennial Review 11 (3): 45-89.
Martin, Darnell, dir. 2008. Cadillac Records. Sony Pictures.
Martin, Randy. 2011. “From the Race War to the War on Terror.” In Beyond Biopolitics: Essays on the Governance of Life and Death, edited by Patricia Ticineto and Craig Willse, 258-74. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
—. 2012. “Bailout.” In Impasses of the Post-Global: Theory in the Era of Climate Change, vol. 2, edited by Henry Sussman, 232-50. Ann Arbor, MI: Open Humanities Press.
Martin, William, Fanon Che Wilkins, and Michael West, eds. 2009. From Toussaint to Tupac: The Black International since the Age of Revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Marx, Anthony W. 1998. Making Race and Nation: A Comparison of South Africa, the United States, and Brazil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Marx, Karl. 1853. “The British Rule in India.” New York Daily Tribune, 25 June. www.marxists.org.
Massood, Paula. 2003. Black City Cinema: African American Urban Experiences in Film. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Masur, Kate. 2010. An Example for All the Land: Emancipation and the Struggle over Equality in Washington, D.C. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Materson, Lisa G. 2009. For the Freedom of Her Race: Black Women and Electoral Politics in Illinois, 1877-1932. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Matory, James Lorand. 2005. Sex and the Empire That Is No More: Gender and the Politics of Metaphor in Oyo Yoruba Religion. New York: Berghahn Books.
Mbembe, Achille. 2001. On the Postcolony. Berkeley: University of California Press.
—. 2003. “Necropolitics.” Public Culture 15 (1): 11-40.
McAdam, Doug. 1982. Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McCaskill, Barbara, and Caroline Gebhard, eds. 2006. Post-bellum, Pre-Harlem: African American Literature and Culture, 1877-1919. New York: NYU Press.
McClintock, Anne. 1992. “The Angel of Progress: Pitfalls on the Term ‘Postcolonialism.’” Social Text 31 (32): 84-98.
—. 1995. Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest. New York: Routledge.
McCurry, Stephanie. 2010. Confederate Reckoning: Power and Politics in the Civil War South. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McDonald, CeCe, and Omise’eke Natasha Tinsley. 2017. “‘Go beyond Our Natural Selves’: The Prison Letters of CeCe McDonald.” TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly 4 (2): 243-65.
McDonald, CeCe. 2015. Foreword to Captive Genders: Trans Embodiment and the Prison Industrial Complex, 2nd ed., edited by Eric A. Stanley and Nat Smith, 1-4. Oakland, CA: AK.
McDowell, Deborah. 1989. “Reading Family Matters.” In Changing Our Own Words, edited by Cheryl A. Wall, 75-97. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
McGerr, Michael. 2003. A Fierce Discontent: The Rise and Fall of the Progressive Movement in America. New York: Oxford University Press.
McKissick, Floyd. (1967) 2000. “CORE Endorses Black Power.” In Let Nobody Turn Us Around: Voices of Resistance, Reform and Renewal, edited by Manning Marable and Leith Mullings, 458-60. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.
McKittrick, Katherine, and Clyde Woods. 2007. Black Geographies and the Politics of Place. Boston: South End.
McKittrick, Katherine. 2006. Demonic Grounds: Black Women and the Cartographies of Struggle. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
—. 2015. Sylvia Wynter: On Being Human as Praxis. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
McMillan, Uri G. 2015. Embodied Avatars: Genealogies of Black Feminist Art and Performance. New York: NYU Press.
McPherson, James. 1995. “Who Freed the Slaves?” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 139 (1): 1-10.
—. 2000. “Lincoln the Devil.” New York Times, 22 August.
Meeropol, Abel (pseud. Lewis Allan). 1939. “Strange Fruit.” Edward B. Marks Music Company.
Meier, August. 1963. Negro Thought in America, 1880-1915. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Meiners, Erica. 2007. Right to Be Hostile: Schools, Prisons, and the Making of Public Enemies. New York: Routledge.
—. 2016. For the Children: Protecting Innocence in a Carceral State. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Melamed, Jodi. 2011. Represent and Destroy: Rationalizing Violence in the New Racial Capitalism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
—. 2014. “Diversity.” In Keywords for American Cultural Studies, 2nd ed., edited by Bruce Burgett and Glenn Hendler, 84-88. New York: NYU Press.
Mercer, Kobena. 1994. Welcome to the Jungle: New Positions in Black Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge.
Michaels, Walter Benn. 1997. “Autobiography of an Ex-White Man: Why Race Is Not a Social Construction.” Transition 73:122-43.
—. 2006. The Trouble with Diversity: How We Learned to Love Identity and Ignore Inequality. New York: Holt.
Mignolo, W. D., and Tlostanova, M. V. 2006. “Theorizing from the Borders: Shifting to Geo- and Body-Politics of Knowledge.” European Journal of Social Theory 9 (2): 205-21.
Miller, Arthur H., Patricia Gurin, Gerald Gurin, and Oksana Malanchuk. 1981. “Group Consciousness and Political Participation.” American Journal of Political Science 25 (3): 494-511.
Miller, Monica R., and Anthony B. Pinn, eds. 2014. The Hip Hop and Religion Reader. New York: Routledge.
Mills, Charles W. 1998. Blackness Visible: Essays on Philosophy and Race. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Mills, Quincy T. 2013. Cutting along the Color Line: Black Barbers and Barber Shops in America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Millward, Jessica. 2015. Finding Charity’s Folk: Enslaved and Free Black Women in Maryland. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Mishra, Vijay, and Bob Hodge. 2005. “What Was Postcolonialism?” New Literary History 36 (3): 375-402.
Mitchell, Michele. 2004. Righteous Propagation: African Americans and the Politics of Racial Destiny after Reconstruction. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Mitchell, Pablo. 2005. Coyote Nation: Sexuality, Race, and Conquest in Modernizing New Mexico, 1880-1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Mitchell, Tony. 2001. Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop outside the USA. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Mocombe, Paul C. 2008. The Soul-less Souls of Black Folk: A Sociological Reconsideration of Black Consciousness as Du Boisian Double-Consciousness. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Mogul, Joey, Andrea Ritchie, and Kay Whitlock. 2011. Queer (In)Justice: The Criminalization of LGBT People in the United States. Boston: Beacon.
Mohammed, Abdul Jan. 1992. “Sexuality on/of the Racial Border.” In Discourses of Sexuality: From Aristotle to AIDS, edited by Domna C. Stanton, 94-117. Institute for the Humanities; Ratio. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. 1984. “Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses.” Boundary 2 12-13 (3): 333-58.
Molina, Natalia. 2006. Fit to Be Citizens? Public Health and Race in Los Angeles, 1879-1939. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Monáe, Janelle. 2010. The ArchAndroid. Bad Boy Records.
Moore et al. v. Dempsey. 1923. 261 U.S. 86.
Moore, Mignon. 2011. Invisible Families: Gay Identities, Relationships, and Motherhood among Black Women. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Moraga, Cherríe, and Gloria Anzaldúa. 2015. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color. 4th ed. Albany: SUNY Press.
Moraga, Cherríe. (1983) 2000. Loving in the War Years: Lo Que Nunca Pasó por Sus Labios. Boston: South End.
Moran, Rachel F. 2001. Interracial Romance: The Regulation of Race and Romance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Morgan, Jennifer L. 2004. Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Morris, Aldon. 2015. The Scholar Denied: W. E B. Du Bois and the Birth of Modern Sociology. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Morrison, Toni, and Claudia Brodsky Lacour, eds. 1997. Birth of a Nation’hood: Gaze, Script, and Spectacle in the O. J. Simpson Case. New York: Pantheon.
Morrison, Toni. (1970) 2007. The Bluest Eye. New York: Vintage International.
—. (1973) 2004. Sula. New York: Vintage International.
—. 1987. Beloved. New York: Knopf.
—. 1992a. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
—, ed. 1992b. Race-ing Justice, En-gendering Power: Essays on Anita Hill, Clarence Thomas, and the Construction of Social Reality. New York: Pantheon.
Morton, Patricia. 1991. Disfigured Images: The Historical Assault on Afro-American Women. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Morton, Samuel G. 1839. Crania Americana; or, A Comparative View of the Skulls of Various Aboriginal Nations of North and South America. Philadelphia: John Pennington.
Moses, Wilson Jeremiah. 1978. The Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 1850-1925. Camden, CT: Archon Books.
Moss, Thylias. 2006. Slave Moth: A Narrative in Verse. New York: Persea Books.
Moten, Fred, and Stefano Harney. 2004. “The University and the Undercommons: Seven Theses.” Social Text 22 (2 79): 101-15.
Moten, Fred. 1999. “Review of Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-Making in Nineteenth-Century America, by Saidiya Hartman, and Soul: Black Power, Politics, and Pleasure, edited by Monique Guillory and Richard C. Green.” TDR: The Drama Review 41 (4): 169-75.
—. 2003. In the Break: The Aesthetics of the Black Radical Tradition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Moynihan, Daniel P. 1965. The Negro Family: The Case for National Action. Washington, DC: Office of Policy Planning and Research, U.S. Department of Labor.
Mudimbe, Valentine Y. 1988. The Invention of Africa: Gnosis, Philosophy, and the Order of Knowledge. Bloomington: Indianan University Press.
Muhammad, Khalil Gibran. 2011. The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mumford, Kevin. 1997. Interzones: Black/White Sex Districts in Chicago and New York in the Early Twentieth Century. New York: Columbia University Press.
Mumford, Lewis. (1937) 2011. “What Is a City.” In The City Reader, 5th ed., edited by Richard T. LeGates and Frederic Stout, 91-95. New York: Routledge.
Murray, Albert. 1976. Stomping the Blues. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Murray, Pauli. 1987. Pauli Murray: The Autobiography of a Black Activist, Feminist, Lawyer, Priest, and Poet. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
Mustakeem, Sowande’ M. 2016. Slavery at Sea: Terror, Sex, and Sickness in the Middle Passage. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Myrdal, Gunnar. (1944) 1995. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. New York: Transaction.
N.W.A. 1988. “Straight Outta Compton.” Straight Outta Compton. CD. Priority Records.
N’COBRA (National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America). 2004. Home page. Accessed 1 January 2018. http://ncobra.org.
Nadasen, Premilla. 2005. Welfare Warriors: The Welfare Rights Movement in the United States. New York: Routledge.
Nardal, Jane. 1928. “Internationalisme Noir.” La Dépêche Africaine, 15 February.
Nash, Jennifer. 2008. “Rethinking Intersectionality.” Feminist Review 89:1-15.
—. 2017. “Intersectionality and Its Discontents.” American Quarterly 69 (1): 117-29.
Naylor, Gloria. 1982. The Women of Brewster Place. New York: Penguin.
Neal, Larry. 1968a. “And Shine Swam On.” In Black Fire: An Anthology of Afro-American Writing, edited by Amiri Baraka and Larry Neal, 637-56. New York: Morrow.
—. 1968b. “The Black Arts Movement.” Drama Review: TDR 12 (4): 28-39.
Neal, Mark Anthony. 2002. Soul Babies: Black Popular Culture and the Post-Soul Aesthetic. New York: Routledge.
—. 2016. “A Fallen Black Girl: Remembering Latasha Harlins.” New Black Man (in Exile), 17 March. www.newblackmaninexile.net.
Nellis, Eric. 2013. Shaping the New World: African Slavery in the Americas, 1500-1888. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Nelson, Alondra. 2016. The Social Life of DNA: Race, Reparations, and Reconciliation after the Genome. Boston: Beacon.
Nesbitt, Francis Njubi. 2004. Race for Sanctions: African Americans against Apartheid, 1946-1994. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Neville, Morgan, dir. 2013. 20 Feet from Stardom. Gil Friesen Productions.
Newfield, Christopher. 2008. Unmaking the Public University: The Forty-Year Assault on the Middle Class. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Newman, Louise Michele. 1999. White Women’s Rights: The Racial Origins of Feminism in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.
Nielsen, Aldon Lynn. 1997. Black Chant: Languages of African American Postmodernism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
—. 2007. “Foreword: Preliminary Postings from a Neo-Soul.” African American Review 41 (4): 601-8.
Nobles, Melissa. 2000. Shades of Citizenship: Race and the Census in Modern Politics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Northup, Solomon. (1853) 2012. Twelve Years a Slave. New York: Penguin Books.
Nunnally, Shayla C. 2010. “Linking Blackness or Ethnic Othering? African Americans’ Diasporic Linked Fate with West Indian and African Peoples in the U.S.” Du Bois Review 7 (2): 335-55.
Nwankwo, Ifeoma. 2005. Black Cosmopolitanism: Racial Consciousness and Transnational Identity in the Nineteenth-Century Americas. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Nyong’o, Tavia. 2014. Rip It Up: Excess and Ecstasy in Little Richard’s Sound. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Obergefell v. Hodges. 2015. 576 U.S. __.
Ocen, Priscilla. 2012. “Punishing Pregnancy: Race, Incarceration, and the Shackling of Pregnant Prisoners.” California Law Review 100:1239-311.
Odendaal, Andre. 1984. Vukani Bantu! The Beginnings of Black Protest Politics in South Africa to 1912. Cape Town: D. Philip.
Ogbar, Jeffrey. 2007. Hip-Hop Revolution: The Culture and Politics of Rap. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights, United Nations). n.d. “Latin America and Caribbean Region.” Accessed 2016. www.ohchr.org.
Okihiro, Gary. 2016. Third World Studies: Theorizing Liberation. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Olzak, Susan, and Suzanne Shanahan. 1996. “Deprivation and Race Riots: An Extension of Spillerman’s Analysis.” Social Forces 74 (3): 931-61.
Omi, Michael, and Howard Winant. 1994. Racial Formation in the United States from the 1960s to the 1990s. London: Routledge.
Omoniyi, Tope. 2009. “‘So I Choose to Do Am Naija Style’: Hip Hop, Language, and Postcolonial Identities.” In Global Linguistic Flows: Hip Hop Cultures, Youth Identities, and the Politics of Language, edited by H. Samy Alim, Awad Ibrahim, and Alastair Pennycook, 113-38. New York: Routledge.
Ongiri, Amy Abugo. 2010. Spectacular Blackness: The Cultural Politics of the Black Power Movement and the Search for a Black Aesthetic. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
Orleck, Annelise. 2005. Storming Caesars Palace: How Black Mothers Fought Their Own War on Poverty. Boston: Beacon.
Outlaw, Lucius T., Jr. 2014. “If Not Races, Then What? Toward a Revised Understanding of Bio-Social Groupings.” Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 35 (1-2): 275-96.
Ové, Horace, dir. 1976. Pressure. Crawford Films.
Owens, Emily. 2017. “Promises: Sexual Labor between Slavery and Freedom.” Louisiana History 58 (2): 179-216.
Oxford English Dictionary. n.d.-a. s.v. “Colonialism, n.” Accessed 19 October 2016. www.oed.com.ezproxy.library.tamu.edu.
—. n.d.-b. s.v. “War, n. 1.” Accessed 3 May 2018. www.oed.com.
Oxford Universal Dictionary on Historical Principles. 1955. s.v. “Nadir.” 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
Pagden, Anthony. 1982. The Fall of Natural Man: The American Indian and the Origins of Comparative Ethnology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Page, Enoch, and Matt Richardson. 2010. “On the Fear of Small Numbers: A Twenty-First-Century Prolegomenon of the U.S. Black Transgender Experience.” In Black Sexualities: Probing Powers, Passions, Practices, and Policies, edited by Juan Battle and Sandra Barnes, 57-81. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Painter, Nell. 1997. Sojourner Truth: A Life, a Symbol. New York: Norton.
—. 2002. Southern History across the Color Line. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
—. 2010. The History of White People. New York: Norton.
Palmer, Colin A. 2000. “Defining and Studying the Modern African Diaspora.” Journal of Negro History 85 (1-2): 27-32.
Palmisano, Joseph M. 2001. “Colonialism.” In World of Sociology, edited by Joseph M. Palmisano. Farmington, MI: Gale. https://search.credoreference.com.
Panofsky, Aaron, and Catherine Bliss. 2017. “Ambiguity and Scientific Authority Population Classification in Genomic Science.” American Sociological Review 82 (1): 59-87.
Park, Peter K. J. 2013. Africa, Asia, and the History of Philosophy: Racism in the Formation of the Philosophical Canon, 1780-1830. Albany: SUNY Press.
Parker, Charlie. 1957. “Thriving on a Riff.” Savoy.
Pascoe, Peggy. 2009. What Comes Naturally: Miscegenation Law and the Making of Race in America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Patillo-McCoy, Mary. 1999. Black Picket Fences: Privilege and Peril among the Black Middle Class. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Patterson, Orlando. 1982. Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
—.1991. Freedom in the Making of Western Culture. New York: Basic Books.
Patterson, Tiffany Ruby, and Robin D. G. Kelley. 2000. “Unfinished Migrations: Reflections on the African Diaspora and the Making of the Modern World.” Special issue on the Diaspora, African Studies Review 43 (1): 11-45.
Patton, Stacey. 2012. “Who’s Afraid of Black Sexuality?” Chronicle of Higher Education, 3 December.
Peña, Devon G. 1997. The Terror of the Machine: Technology, Work, Gender, and Ecology on the U.S.-Mexico Border. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Pennycook, Alastair, and Tony Mitchell. 2009. “Hip Hop as Dusty Foot Philosophy: Engaging Locality.” In Global Linguistic Flows: Hip Hop Cultures, Youth Identities, and the Politics of Language, edited by H. Samy Alim, Awad Ibrahim, and Alastair Pennycook, 25-42. New York: Routledge.
Perkinson, Robert. 2010. Texas Tough: The Rise of America’s Prison Regime. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Perry, Imani. 2004. Prophets of the Hood: Politics and Poetics in Hip Hop. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Petry, Anne. 1946. The Street. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Phil Donahue Show. 1980. “Alvin Poussaint Talks about the Macho Myth Adopted by Black Men and the Frequent Resentment of Black Women.” 5 January.
Philip, NourbeSe. 2008. Zong! Toronto: Mercury.
Phillips, Ulrich B. 1918. American Negro Slavery: A Survey of the Supply, Employment and Control of Negro Labor as Determined by the Plantation Régime. New York: D. Appleton.
Pierre, Jemima. 2012. The Predicament of Blackness: Postcolonial Ghana and the Politics of Race. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Pierson, William D. 1977. “White Cannibals, Black Martyrs: Fear, Depression, and Religious Faith as Causes of Suicide among Slaves.” Journal of Negro History 62:147-59.
Plessy v. Ferguson. 1896. 163 U.S. 537.
Plessy v. Ferguson. 1896. 163 U.S. 537.
Poulson-Bryant, Scott. 2005. Hung: A Meditation on the Measure of Black Men in America. New York: Doubleday.
Powers, Ann. 2017. Good Booty: Love and Sex, Black and White, Body and Soul in American Music. New York: Dey Street Books.
Prather, H. Leon, Sr. 1998. “We Have Taken a City: A Centennial Essay.” In Democracy Betrayed: The Wilmington Race Riot of 1898 and Its Legacy, edited by David S. Cecelski and Timothy B. Tyson, 15-41. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
PREAP (Prison Research Education Action Project). (1976) 2005. Instead of Prisons: A Handbook for Abolitionists. Oakland, CA: Critical Resistance.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania. 1842. 41 U.S. 539.
Prince, Mary. (1831) 1987. The History of Mary Prince: A West Indian Slave, Related by Herself. London: Pandora.
Prince. 1980. “Uptown.” Dirty Mind. Rhino / Warner Bros.
—. 1981. “Sexuality.” Controversy. Warner Bros. Records.
—. 2001. “Rainbow Children.” Rainbow Children. NPG Records.
Proper, David R. 1992. “Lucy Terry Prince: ‘Singer of History.’” Contributions in Black Studies 9:187-214.
Puar, Jasbir. 2013. “I’d Rather Be a Cyborg than a Goddess: Becoming Intersectional in Assemblage Theory.” Philosophia 2 (1): 49-66.
Public Enemy. 2012. “Get Up Stand Up.” Most of My Heroes Still Don’t Appear on No Stamp. Enemy Records.
Pudi, Danny, dir. 2014. Untucked. ESPN Films.
Puryear, Bennet. 1877. The Public School in Its Relations to the Negro. Richmond, VA: Clemmett and Jones.
Quarles, Benjamin. 1970. Black Abolitionists. New York: Oxford University Press.
Raboteau, Albert J. 1978. Slave Religion: The “Invisible Institution” in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rafael, Vicente L. 1993. “White Love: Surveillance and Nationalist Resistance in the U.S. Colonization of the Philippines.” In Cultures of United States Imperialism, edited by Donald E. Pease and Amy Kaplan, 185-218. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Rampersad, Arnold. 2006. Introduction to The Oxford Anthology of African-American Poetry, edited by Arnold Rampersad, xix-xxix. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rankine, Claudia. 2014. Citizen: An American Lyric. Minneapolis: Graywolf.
Rawls, Anne Warfield. 2000. “‘Race’ as an Interaction Order Phenomenon: W. E. B. Du Bois’s ‘Double-Consciousness’ Thesis Revisited.” Sociological Theory 18 (2): 241-74.
Ray, Carina E. 2015. Crossing the Color Line: Race, Sex, and the Contested Politics of Colonialism in Ghana. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Reagon, Bernice Johnson. 2000. “Coalition Politics: Turning the Century.” In Homegirls: A Black Feminist Anthology, edited by Barbara Smith, 343-56. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Red Clay Ramblers. 2001. “My Name Is Moses.” Yonder. Red Clay Ramblers.
Rediker, Marcus. 2007. The Slave Ship: A Human History. New York: Penguin Books.
Redmond, Shana L. 2014. Anthem: Social Movements and the Sound of Solidarity in the African Diaspora. New York: NYU Press.
Reed, Adolph L. 1979. “Black Particularity Reconsidered.” Telos 39:71-93.
—. 1997. W. E. B. Du Bois and American Political Thought: Fabianism and the Color-Line. New York: Oxford University Press.
Reed, Pamela. 2007. “From the Freedmen’s Bureau to FEMA: A Post-Katrina Historical, Journalistic, and Literary Analysis.” Journal of Black Studies 37 (4): 557-67.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke. 1978. 438 U.S. 265.
Reid-Pharr, Robert. 2001. Black Gay Man: Essays. New York: NYU Press.
Reséndez, Andrés. 2016. The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Richardson, Matt, and Leisa Meyer. 2011. Preface to “Race and Transgender Studies: A Special Issue.” Feminist Studies 37 (2): 247-53.
Richardson, Riché. 2007. Black Masculinity and the U.S. South: From Uncle Tom to Gangsta. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Richie, Beth E. 1996. Compelled to Crime: The Gender Entrapment of Battered, Black Women. New York: Routledge.
—. 2012. Arrested Justice: Black Women, Violence, and America’s Prison Nation. New York: NYU Press.
Rickford, Russell. 2016. We Are an African People: Independent Education, Black Power, and the Radical Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rifkin, Mark. 2009. Manifesting America: The Imperial Construction of U.S. National Space. New York: Oxford University Press.
Riggs, Marlon, dir. 1994. Black Is . . . Black Ain’t. Docurama.
Riley, Clayton. 1970. “That New Black Magic.” Review of Soul! New York Times, 17 May.
Riley, Stevan, dir. 2010. Fire in Babylon. New Video Group.
Roane, J. T. 2017. “Plotting the Black Commons: Landscapes of Death and Fugitivity around the Chesapeake.” Unpublished ms. in author’s possession.
Roberson, Ed. 1970. When Thy King Is a Boy: Poems. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Roberts, Dorothy. 1997. Killing the Black Body: Race, Reproduction, and the Meaning of Liberty. New York: Pantheon Books.
—. 2011. Fatal Invention: How Science, Politics, and Big Business Re-create Race in the Twenty-First Century. New York: New Press.
—. 2012. “Prison, Foster Care, and the Systemic Punishment of Black Mothers.” UCLA Law Review 59 (August): 1474-1500.
Roberts, Neil. 2015. Freedom as Marronage. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Robinson, Armstead L. 2005. Bitter Fruits of Bondage: The Demise of Slavery and the Collapse of the Confederacy, 1861-1865. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
Robinson, Beverly. 2002. “The Sense of Self in Ritualizing New Performance Spaces for Survival.” In Black Theatre: Ritual Performance in the African Diaspora, edited by Paul Carter Harrison, Victor Leo Walker, and Gus Edwards, 332-44. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Robinson, Cedric J. (1983) 2000. Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
—. 2007. Forgeries of Memory and Meaning: Blacks and the Regimes of Race in American Theater and Film before World War II. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Robinson, Dean. 2001. Black Nationalism in American Politics and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Robinson, William I. 1992. A Faustian Bargain: U.S. Intervention in the Nicaraguan Elections and American Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Rock Hall. n.d. “Digital Classroom: Ruth Brown, ‘Mama, He Treats Your Daughter Mean.’” Accessed 2017. www.rockhall.com.
Rodney, Walter. (1972) 1981. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Washington, DC: Howard University Press.
Rodríguez, Dylan. 2006. Forced Passages: Imprisoned Radical Intellectuals and the U.S. Prison Regime. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
—. 2007. “Forced Passages.” In Warfare in the American Homeland: Policing and Prison in a Penal Democracy, edited by Joy James, 35-57. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
—. 2009. “The Political Logic of the Non-profit Industrial Complex.” In The Revolution Will Not Be Funded, edited by INCITE! Women of Color Against Violence, 21-40. Boston: South End.
—. 2015. The Illiteracy of “Mass Incarceration”: Racial Terror and the Insurgent Poetics of Evisceration. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Roediger, David R. 2014. Seizing Freedom: Slave Emancipation and Liberty for All. New York: Verso.
Rogers, Ibram. 2012. The Black Campus Movement: Black Students and the Racial Reconstitution of Higher Education, 1965-1972. New York: Palgrave.
Rogers, Joel A. (1925) 1977. “Jazz at Home.” In The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke, 99-224. New York: Atheneum.
Rogers, Reuel R. 2006. Afro-Caribbean Immigrants and the Politics of Incorporation: Ethnicity, Exception, or Exit. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rojas, Fabio. 2010. From Black Power to Black Studies: How a Radical Social Movement Became an Academic Discipline. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Rooks, Noliwe M. 2006. White Money / Black Power: The Surprising History of African American Studies and the Crisis of Race in Higher Education. Boston: Beacon.
Root, Maria P. P., ed. 1992. Racial Mixed People in America. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
—, ed. 1996. The Multiracial Experience: Racial Borders as the New Frontier. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Rose, Tricia. 1994. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press.
Rosen, Hannah. 2009. Terror in the Heart of Freedom: Citizenship, Sexual Violence, and the Meaning of Race in the Postemancipation South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Ross, Luana. 1998. Inventing the Savage: the Social Construction of Native American Criminality. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Ross, Marlon. 2004. Manning the Race: Reforming Black Men in the Jim Crow Era. New York: NYU Press.
Roth, Benita. 2004. Separate Roads to Feminism: Black, Chicana, and White Feminist Movements in America’s Second Wave. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rothman, Adam. 2004. “The Domestication of the Slave Trade in the United States.” In The Chattel Principle: Internal Slave Trades in the Americas, edited by Walter Johnson, 32-54. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Royster, Francesca T. 2013. Sounding like a No-No: Queer Sounds and Eccentric Acts in the Post-Soul Era. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Royster, Jacqueline Jones. 1996. Introduction to Southern Horrors and Other Writings: The Anti-lynching Campaign of Ida B. Wells, 1892-1900, edited by Jacqueline Jones Royster, 1-46. New York: Bedford / St. Martin’s.
Russell-Wood, A. J. R. 1978. “Iberian Expansion and the Issue of Black Slavery: Changing Portuguese Attitudes, 1440-1770.” American Historical Review 83 (1): 16-42.
—. 1995. “Before Columbus: Portugal’s African Prelude to the Middle Passage and Contribution to Discourse on Race and Slavery.” In Race, Discourse, and the Origins of the America: A New World Views, edited by Vera Lawrence Hyatt and Rex Nettleford, 134-68. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Rustin, Bayard. 1965. “From Protest to Politics: The Future of the Civil Rights Movement.” Commentary 39 (2): 25-31.
Ryan, William J. 1971. Blaming the Victim. New York: Pantheon.
Said, Edward W. 1979. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books.
Sajnani, Damon. 2013. “Troubling the Trope of ‘Rapper as Modern Griot.’” Journal of Pan-African Studies 6 (3): 156-80.
—. 2014. “Rapping in the Light: American Africanism and Rap Minstrelsy.” Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture and Society 16 (3-4): 303-29.
—. 2015. “Remembering Monarchy, Forgetting Coloniality: The Elision of Race in Canadian Monarchy Abolition Debates.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 47 (2): 137-63.
Salaam, Kalamu ya. 1972. “Food for Thought.” In New Black Voices, edited by Abraham Chapman, 378-79. New York: Mentor.
Sanchez, Gabriel, and Natalie Masuoka. 2010. “Brown-Utility Heuristic? The Presence and Contributing Factors of Latino Linked Fate.” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 32:519-31.
Sarkar, Mela. 2008. “‘Ousqu’on chill à soir?’: Pratiques multilingues comme stratégies identitaires dans la communauté hip-hop montréalaise.” Diversité Urbaine (Numéro thématique: Plurilinguisme et identités au Canada): 27-44.
Saunders, A. D. de C. M. 1982. A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedom in Portugal, 1441-1555. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Saville, Julie. 1994. The Work of Reconstruction: From Slave to Wage Laborer in South Carolina, 1860-1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Savitt, Todd. 1976. Medicine and Slavery: The Diseases and Health Care of Blacks in Antebellum Virginia. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Schechner, Richard. 2002. Performance Studies: An Introduction. New York: Routledge.
Schept, Judah. 2015. Progressive Punishment: Job Loss, Jail Growth, and the Neoliberal Logic of Carceral Expansion. New York: NYU Press.
Schmidt, Elizabeth. 2013. Foreign Intervention in Africa: From the Cold War to the War on Terror. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Schwalm, Leslie. 1997. A Hard Fight for We: Women’s Transition from Slavery to Freedom in South Carolina. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
—. 2009. Emancipation’s Diaspora: Race and Reconstruction in the Upper Midwest. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Scott, Darieck. 2010. Extravagant Abjection: Blackness, Power, and Sexuality in the African American Literary Imagination. New York: NYU Press.
Scott, David. 1991. “That Event, This Memory: Notes on the Anthropology of African Diasporas in the New World.” Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies 1 (3): 261-84.
—. 2000. “The Re-enchantment of Humanism: An Interview with Sylvia Wynter.” Small Axe: A Caribbean Journal of Criticism 8 (September): 119-207.
—. 2004. Conscripts of Modernity: The Tragedy of Colonial Enlightenment. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Scruton, Roger. (1981) 1995. A Short History of Modern Philosophy: From Descartes to Wittgenstein. New York: Routledge.
Sebastiani, Silvia. 2013. The Scottish Enlightenment: Race, Gender, and the Limits of Progress. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sexton, Danny. 2008. “Lifting the Veil: Revision and Double-Consciousness in Rita Dove’s The Darker Face of the Earth.” Callaloo 31 (3): 777-87.
Sexton, Jared. 2008. Amalgamation Schemes: Antiblackness and the Critique of Multiracialism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Shabazz, Rashad. 2015. Spatializing Blackness: Architectures of Confinement and Black Masculinity in Chicago. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Shah, Nayan. 2001. Contagious Divides: Epidemics and Race in San Francisco’s Chinatown. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Shakur, Assata. (1987) 2001. Assata: An Autobiography. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 2001.
Shakur, Tupac. 1996. “California Love.” Featuring Dr. Dre and Roger Troutman. All Eyez On Me. Death Row Records.
Shange, Ntozake. 1975. For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide / When the Rainbow Is Enuf. New York: Scribner.
—. 1992. “Fore/Play.” In Erotique Noire: Black Erotica, edited by Miriam DeCosta-Willis, Reginald Martin, and Roseann P. Bell, xix-xx. New York: Doubleday.
Sharpe, Christina. 2010. Monstrous Intimacies: Making Post-Slavery Subjects. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
—. 2014. “Black Studies: In the Wake.” Black Scholar 44 (2): 59-69.
—. 2016. In the Wake: On Blackness and Being. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Shelby, Tommie. 2005. We Who Are Dark: The Philosophical Foundations of Black Solidarity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Shelley v. Kraemer. 1948. 334 U.S. 1.
Shemak, April. 2011. Asylum Speakers: Caribbean Refugees and Testimonial Discourse. New York: Fordham University Press.
Shepperson, George. 1962. “Pan-Africanism and ‘Pan Africanism’: Some Historical Notes.” Phylon 23 (4): 346-58.
Shingles, Richard D. 1981. “Black Group Consciousness and Political Participation: The Missing Link.” American Political Science Review 75 (1): 76-91.
Shire, Warsan. 2011. “Home.” In Teaching My Mother How to Give Birth. London: Flipped Eye.
Shockley, Evie. 2011. “Going Overboard: African American Poetic Innovation and the Middle Passage.” Contemporary Literature 52 (4): 791-817.
Shohat, Ella. 1992. “Notes on the ‘Post-colonial.’” Social Text 31-32:99-113.
Silva, Denise Ferreira da. 2007. Toward a Global Idea of Race. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Simien, Evelyn M. 2005. “Race, Gender, and Linked Fate.” Journal of Black Studies 35 (5): 529-50.
—. 2006. Black Feminist Voices in Politics. New York: SUNY Press.
Simmons, Barbara. (1967) 2007. “Soul.” In Black Fire: An Anthology of Afro-American Writing, edited by Amiri Baraka and Larry Neal, 304-8. Baltimore: Black Classic.
Simmons, William J. 1887. Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive, and Rising. Cleveland, OH: Geo. M. Rewell.
Singh, Chaitram. 1988. Guyana: Politics in a Plantation Society. New York: Praeger.
Sinha, Manisha. 2016. The Slave’s Cause: A History of Abolition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Skloot, Rebecca. 2010. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Random House.
Smallwood, Stephanie E. 2007. Saltwater Slavery: A Middle Passage from Africa to American Diaspora. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Smedley, Audrey. 2007. “The History of the Idea of Race . . . and Why It Matters.” Paper presented at the “Race, Human Variation and Disease: Consensus and Frontiers” conference, 14-17 March, Warrenton, VA. www.understandingrace.org.
Smethurst, James. 2006. The Black Arts Movement: Literary Nationalism in the 1960s and 1970s. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Smith, Barbara, ed. 1983. Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology. New York: Kitchen Table-Women of Color Press.
—. 2000. Introduction to Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology, xxi-lviii. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Smith, Candis Watts. 2014. Black Mosaic: The Politics of Black Pan-ethnic Diversity. New York: NYU Press.
Smith, Linda Tuhiwai. 1999. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. London: Zed Books.
Smith, Shawn Michelle. 1999. American Archives: Gender, Race, and Class in Visual Culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
—. 2004. Photography on the Color Line: W. E. B. Du Bois, Race, and Visual Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Smith, Valerie. 1998. Not Just Race, Not Just Gender: Black Feminist Readings. New York: Routledge.
Smitherman, Geneva. 2000. Black Talk: Words and Phrase from the Hood to the Amen Corner. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Smithsonian. 2016. The National Museum of African American History and Culture: A Souvenir Book. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books.
Sneed, Roger A. 2010. Representations of Homosexuality: Black Liberation Theology and Cultural Criticism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Snorton, C. Riley. 2017. Black on Both Sides: A Racial History of Trans-Identity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
Snorton, C. Riley, and Jin Haritaworn. 2013. “Trans Necropolitics.” In The Transgender Studies Reader, vol. 2, edited by Aren Aizura and Susan Stryker, 66-76. New York: Routledge.
Sobral, Ana. 2013. “The Survivor’s Odyssey: K’naan’s The Dusty Foot Philosopher as Modern Epic.” African American Review 46 (1): 21-36.
Sohi, Seema. 2011. “Race, Surveillance, and Indian Anticolonialism in the Transnational Western U.S.-Canadian Borderlands.” Journal of American History 98 (2): 420-36.
Sojoyner, Damien M. 2016. First Strike: Educational Enclosures in Black Los Angeles. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Sollors, Werner. 1997. Neither Black nor White yet Both: Thematic Explorations of Interracial Literature. New York: Oxford University Press.
Somerville, Siobhan B. 2000. Queering the Color Line: Race and the Invention of Homosexuality in American Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Soyinka, Wole. 2012. Of Africa. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Spade, Dean, Eric Stanley, and Queer Injustice. 2012. “Queering Prison Abolition, Now?” American Quarterly 61 (March): 115-27.
Spade, Dean. 2013. “Intersectional Resistance and Law Reform.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 38 (4): 1031-55.
Spillers, Hortense J. 1987. “Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe: An American Grammar Book.” Diacritics 17 (2): 64-81. www.jstor.org.
—. 2003. Black, White and in Color: Essays on American Literature and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Spivak, Gayatri C. 1999. A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Toward a History of the Vanishing Present. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Springer, Kimberly. 2005. Living for the Revolution: Black Feminist Organizations, 1968-1980. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Stack, Carol. 1974. All Our Kin. New York: Basic Books.
Stampp, Kenneth. 1956. The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South. New York: Vintage Books.
Stanard, Matthew G. 2011. Selling the Congo: A History of European Pro-Empire Propaganda and the Making of Belgian Imperialism. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Stanley, Amy Dru. 1998. From Bondage to Contract: Wage Labor, Marriage, and the Market in the Age of Slave Emancipation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stanley, Eric A., and Nat Smith. 2015. Captive Genders: Trans Embodiment and the Prison Industrial Complex. 2nd ed. Oakland, CA: AK.
Stanton, Fred, ed. 1980. Fighting Racism in World War II. New York: Pathfinder.
Staples, Robert. 1971. The Black Family: Essays and Studies. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
—. 1973. The Black Woman in America: Sex, Marriage, and the Family. Chicago: NelHall.
—. 1974. “Has the Sexual Revolution Bypassed Blacks?” Ebony, 29 April, 111-14.
—. 1979. “The Myth of the Black Macho: A Response to Angry Black Feminists.” Black Scholar 10 (6-7): 24-33. www.jstor.org.
Stasiulis, Daiva, and Nira Yuval-Davis, eds. 1995. Understanding Settler Societies: Articulations of Gender, Race, Ethnicity and Class. London: Sage.
Steel Pulse. 1979. Tribute to the Martyrs. Island Records.
Steinberg, Stephen. 2007. Race Relations: A Critique. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Stephens, Michelle. 1998. “Black Transnationalism and the Politics of National Identity: West Indian Intellectuals in Harlem in the Age of War and Revolution.” American Quarterly 50 (3): 592-608.
—. 2005. Black Empire: The Masculine Global Imaginary of Caribbean Intellectuals in the United States, 1914-1962. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Stevenson, Brenda. 2015. The Contested Murder of Latasha Harlins: Justice, Gender, and the Origins of the LA Riots. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stewart, Jacqueline Najuma. 2005. Migrating to the Movies: Cinema and Black Urban Modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Stuckey, Sterling. 1987. Slave Culture: Nationalist Theory and the Foundations of Black America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sudbury (Oparah), Julia. 2005. Global Lockdown: Race, Gender, and the Prison-Industrial Complex. New York: Routledge.
Sugarhill Gang. 1979. “Rapper’s Delight.” Sugarhill Gang. Sylvia Robinson.
Sugrue, Thomas. 2008. Sweet Land of Liberty: The Forgotten Struggle for Civil Rights in the North. New York: Random House.
—. 2014. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Summers, Martin. 2004. Manliness and Its Discontents: The Black Middle Class and the Transformation of Masculinity, 1900-1930. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Sussmann, Robert Wald. 2014. “There Is No Such Thing as Race.” Newsweek, 11 November. www.newsweek.com.
Sweet, James H. 1996. “Male Homosexuality and Spiritism in the African Diaspora: The Legacies of a Link.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 7 (2): 184-202.
Sykes, Bobbi. 1998. Snake Dancing. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Taketani, Etsuko. 2014. The Black Pacific Narrative: Geographic Imaginings of Race and Empire between the World Wars. Hanover, NH: Dartmouth University Press.
Tannenbaum, Rob. 2017. “How Best Rock Performance Became One of the Grammys’ Weirdest Races.” New York Times, 6 February. www.nytimes.com.
Tasch, Barbara. 2015. “The 23 Poorest Countries in the World.” Business Insider, 13 July. www.businessinsider.com.
Tate, Claudia. 1992. Domestic Allegories of Political Desire: The Black Heroine’s Text at the Turn of the Century. New York: Oxford University Press.
Tate, Greg. (1986) 1992. “Cult-Nats Meet Freaky-Deke: The Return of the Black Aesthetic.” In Flyboy in the Buttermilk: Essays on Contemporary America, edited by Greg Tate, 198-209. New York: Simon and Schuster.
—. 2017. “Chuck Berry: The Double-Helix of Rock & Roll.” Village Voice, 22 March. www.villagevoice.com.
Tate, Katherine. 1993. From Protest to Politics: The New Black Voters in American Elections. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Taylor, A. A. 1924. The Negro in South Carolina during the Reconstruction. Washington, DC: Association for the Study of Negro Life and History.
Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta. 2016. From #BlackLivesMatter to Black Liberation. Chicago: Haymarket Books.
—, ed. 2017. How We Get Free: Black Feminism and the Combahee River Collective. Chicago: Haymarket Books.
Taylor, Mildred D. 1976. Roll of Thunder Hear My Cry. New York: Penguin Books.
Taylor, Susie King. 1902. Reminiscences of My Life in Camp with the 33rd United States Colored Troops Late 1st S.C. Volunteers. Boston: Published by the Author.
Taylor, Ula Yvette. 2002. The Veiled Garvey: The Life and Times of Amy Jacques Garvey. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Templeton, Alan. 1998. “Human Races: A Genetic and Evolutionary Perspective.” American Anthropologist 100:632-50.
Terborg-Penn, Rosalyn. 1998. African American Women in the Struggle for the Vote, 1850-1920. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Theoharis, Jeanne, and Komozi Woodard, eds. 2003. Freedom North: Black Freedom Struggles outside the South. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Thomas, Deborah A. 2011. Exceptional Violence: Embodied Citizenship in Transnational Jamaica. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Thomas, William I., and Dorothy Swain Thomas. 1928. The Child in America: Behavior Problems and Programs. New York: Knopf.
Thuma, Emily. 2015. “Lessons in Self-Defense: Gender Violence, Racial Criminalization and Anticarceral Feminism.” WSQ: Women’s Studies Quarterly 43 (Fall-Winter): 52-71.
Tillmon, Johnnie. 1972. “Welfare Is a Women’s Issue.” Ms. 1:1113-16.
Tinsley, Omise’eke Natasha. 2008. “Black Atlantic, Queer Atlantic: Queer Imaginings of the Middle Passage.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 14 (2-3): 191-215.
—. 2010. Thiefing Sugar: Eroticism between Women in Caribbean Literature. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Tocqueville, Alexis de. 1841. Democracy in America. Translated by Harry Reeve. 4th ed. New York: Langley.
Truth, Sojourner. (1850) 1993. Narrative of Sojourner Truth. New York: Vintage Books.
Tucker, Mark. 1995. The Duke Ellington Reader. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ture, Kwame (formerly Stokely Carmichael), and Charles V. Hamilton. 2011. Black Power: Politics of Liberation in America. New York: Knopf Doubleday.
Turvey, Brent W. 2002. “A History of Criminal Profiling.” In Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis, edited by Brent Turvey, 1-20. New York: Academic.
Tushnet, Mark. 1987. The NAACP’s Legal Strategy against Segregated Education, 1925-1950. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
—. 1996. Making Civil Rights Law: Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court, 1936-1961. New York: Oxford University Press.
U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs. n.d. Home page. Accessed 1 January 2018. www.bia.gov.
U.S. Census Bureau. 2010a. “Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Spells of Unemployment, 2004-2007.” Current Population Reports, July. www.census.gov.
U.S. Department of Justice. 2015. Department of Justice Report Regarding the Criminal Investigation into the Shooting Death of Michael Brown by Ferguson, Missouri Police Officer Darren Wilson. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
U.S. Government Accountability Office. 2007. African American Children in Foster Care: Additional HHS Assistance Needed to Help States Reduce the Proportion in Care. 11 July. www.gao.gov.
U.S. National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. 1968. Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
—. 2010b. Income, Poverty, and Health Coverage in the United States: 2009. September. www.census.gov.
—. 2011. “The Black Population: 2010.” 2010 Census Briefs, September. www.census.gov.
Useem, Bert. 1997. “The State and Collective Disorders: The Los Angeles Riot/Protest of April, 1992.” Social Forces 76 (2): 357-77.
Van Deburg, William L. 1992. New Day in Babylon: The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965-1975. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Van Peebles, Melvin, dir. 1971. Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song. DVD. Xenon Pictures, 2002.
Van Sertima, Ivan. (1976) 2003. They Came before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America. Reprint. New York: Random House.
Vasquez, Xavier. 1993. “The North American Free Trade Agreement and Environmental Racism.” Harvard International Law Journal 34 (2): 357-79.
Veracini, Lorenzo. 2015. The Settler Colonial Present. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Vernon, Grenville. (1919) 2014. “That Mysterious Jazz.” New York Tribune, 30 March, sec. 4, p. 5. Reprinted in Keeping Time: Readings in Jazz History, edited by Robert Walser, 10-12. New York: Oxford University Press. Citations refer to the reprinted edition.
Vinson, Robert Trent. 2012. The Americans Are Coming! Dreams of African American Liberation in Segregationist South Africa. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Vizenor, Gerald. 1999. Manifest Manners: Narratives on Postindian Survivance. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Von Eschen, Penny M. 1997. Race against Empire: Black Americans and Anticolonialism, 1937-1957. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Wa Thiong’o, Ngugi. 1986. Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. London: James Currey / Heinemann.
Wacquant, Loïc. 2009. Prisons of Poverty. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Wagner, Bryan. 2009. Disturbing the Peace: Black Culture and the Police Power after Slavery. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wald, Gayle. 2000. Crossing the Line: Racial Passing in Twentieth-Century U.S. Literature and Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
—. 2008. Shout, Sister, Shout! The Untold Story of Rock-and-Roll Trailblazer Sister Rosetta Tharpe. Boston: Beacon.
—. 2015. It’s Been Beautiful: Soul! and Black Power Television. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Walker, Alice. 1982. The Color Purple. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
—. 1983. In Search of Our Mother’s Gardens: Womanist Prose. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Books.
Walker, Cherryl. 2008. Landmarked: Land Claims and Land Restitution in South Africa. Johannesburg: Jacana Media.
Walker, David. (1829) 1995. David Walker’s Appeal, in Four Articles; Together with a Preamble, to the Coloured Citizens of the World, but in Particular, and Very Expressly, to Those of the United States of America. Edited by Sean Wilentz. New York: Hill and Wang.
Wall, Cheryl. 1995. Women of the Harlem Renaissance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Wallace-Wells, Benjamin. 2006. “Is America Too Racist for Barack? Too Sexist for Hillary?” Washington Post, 12 November, B01.
Wallace, Julia R., and Kai M. Green. 2013. “Tranifest: Queer Futures.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 19 (4): 568-69.
Wallace, Michele. 1979. Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman. New York: Dial.
—. 1990. “Variations on Negation and the Heresy of Black Feminist Creativity.” In Reading Black, Reading Feminist: A Critical Anthology, edited by Henry Louis Gates Jr., 52-67. New York: Meridian.
Ward, Prothero, and Leathes. 1912. “The Colonization of Africa, 1870-1910.” In The Cambridge Modern History Atlas. New York: Macmillan. http://etc.usf.edu.
Warren, Wendy. 2016. New England Bound: Slavery and Colonization in Early America. New York: Liveright.
Washington, Harriet A. 2006. Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present. New York: Doubleday.
Washington, Margaret. n.d. “Rachel Weeping for Her Children: Black Women and the Abolition of Slavery.” History Now: Journal of the Gilder Lehrman Institute. Accessed 14 May 2018. http://oa.gilderlehrman.org.
Washington, Mary Helen, ed. 1975. Black-Eyed Susans: Classic Stories by and about Black Women. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.
—, ed. 1980. Midnight Birds: Stories by Contemporary Black Women Writers. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.
Watkins-Owens, Irma. 1996. Blood Relations: Caribbean Immigrants and the Harlem Community, 1900-1930. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Watson, Veronica. 2011. “Demythologizing Whiteness in Frank Yerby’s The Foxes of Harrow.” Journal of Ethnic American Literature 1:90-110.
Wax, Darold. 1967. “The Demand for Slave Labor in Colonial Pennsylvania.” Pennsylvania History 34:331-45.
Weaver, Jace. 2014. The Red Atlantic: American Indigenes and the Making of the Modern World, 1000-1927. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Weinbaum, Alys. 2013. “W. E. B. Du Bois’s Black Reconstruction and Black Feminism’s ‘Propaganda of History.’” South Atlantic Quarterly 112 (Summer): 437-63.
Weisenfeld, Judith. 2017. A New World A-Coming: Black Religion and Racial Identity during the Great Migration. New York: NYU Press.
Wekker, Gloria. 2006. The Politics of Passion: Women’s Sexual Culture in the Afro-Surinamese Diaspora. New York: Columbia University Press.
Wells-Barnett, Ida B. (1892) 1996. Southern Horrors and Other Writings: The Anti-Lynching Campaign of Ida B. Wells, 1892-1900. Boston: Bedford / St. Martin’s.
—. (1892) 2002. On Lynchings. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books.
—. 1900. Mob Rule in New Orleans: Robert Charles and His Fight to Death, the Story of His Life, Burning Human Beings Alive, Other Lynching Statistics. Chicago: Ida B. Wells-Barnett.
—. 1917. The East St. Louis Massacre: The Greatest Outrage of the Century. Chicago: Negro Fellowship Herald Press.
—. 1970. Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells. Edited by Alfreda M. Duster. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Welsing, Frances Cress. 1991. The Isis (Yssis) Papers. Chicago: Third World.
Wheatley, Phyllis. (1773) 1989. Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. In The Poems of Phyllis Wheatley, rev. ed., edited by Julian D. Mason Jr., 41-112. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
—. 2001. Complete Writings. Edited by Vincent Carretta. New York: Penguin Books.
White, Deborah Gray. (1985) 1999. Ar’n’t I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South. New York: Norton.
White, E. Francis. 2001. Dark Continent of Our Bodies: Black Feminism and the Politics of Respectability. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Whites, LeAnn. 1995. The Civil War as a Crisis in Gender: Augusta, Georgia, 1860-1890. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Wiebe, Robert H. 1967. The Search for Order, 1877-1920. New York: Hill and Wang.
Wiegman, Robyn. 1995. American Anatomies: Theorizing Race and Gender. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Wilder, Craig Steven. 2013. Ebony and Ivy: Race, Slavery, and the Troubled History of America’s Universities. New York: Bloomsbury.
Williams, Eric. (1944) 2014. Capitalism and Slavery. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Williams, Erica Lorraine. 2013. Sex Tourism in Bahia: Ambiguous Entanglements. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Williams, Heather Andrea. 2005. Self-Taught: African American Education in Slavery and Freedom. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Williams, John A. 1967. The Man Who Cried I Am: A Novel. Boston: Little, Brown.
Williams, Kim M. 2006. Mark One or More: Civil Rights in Multiracial America. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Williams, Raymond. 1983. Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. New York: Oxford University Press.
—. 1985. Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. Rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Williams, Robert A., Jr. 1990. The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of Conquest. New York: Oxford University Press.
Willis, Ellen. 2011.”Beginning to See the Light.” In Out of the Vinyl Deeps: Ellen Willis on Rock Music, edited by Nona Willis Aronowitz, 148-56. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Willoughby-Herard, Tiffany. 2016. “Abolition and Kinship.” Abolition Journal, 24 May. https://abolitionjournal.org.
Wilson, Charles Erwin. 1947. To Secure These Rights: The Report of the President’s Committee on Civil Rights. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Wilson, Olly. 1983. “Black Music as an Art Form.” Black Music Research Journal 3:1-22.
Wilson, William Julius. 1980. The Declining Significance of Race: Blacks and Changing American Institutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Winn, Maisha T. 2011. Girl Time: Literacy, Justice, and School-to-Prison Pipeline. New York: Teachers College Press.
Wish, Harvey. 1937. “American Slave Insurrections before 1861.” Journal of Negro History 22 (3): 299-320.
—, ed. 1964. Slavery in the South: First-hand Accounts of the Ante-bellum American Southland. New York: Farrar, Straus.
Wolfe, Patrick. 1999. Settler Colonialism and the Transformation of Anthropology: The Politics and Poetics of an Ethnographic Event. London: Cassell.
—. 2006. “Settler Colonialism and the Elimination of the Native.” Journal of Genocide Research 8 (4): 387-409.
Wolfers, Justin, David Leonhardt, and Kevin Quealy. 2015. “1.5 Missing Black Men.” New York Times, 20 April. www.nytimes.com.
Wonder, Stevie. 1973. “Living for the City.” Motown.
Woods, Clyde. 2000. Development Arrested: The Blues and Plantation Power in the Mississippi Delta. London: Verso.
Woodson, Carter G. 1933. The Miseducation of the Negro. Washington, DC: Associated.
Woodward, C. Vann. 1966. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. New York: Oxford University Press.
World Bank. n.d. “GDP.” Accessed 1 January 2018. http://data.worldbank.org.
Wright, Michelle. 2004. Becoming Black: Creating Identity in the African Diaspora. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
—. 2015. Physics of Blackness: Beyond the Middle Passage Epistemology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Wright, Richard. 1940. Native Son. New York: Harper Perennial.
Wun, Connie. 2016. “Angered: Black and Non-Black Girls of Color at the Intersections of Violence and School Discipline in the United States.” Race, Ethnicity and Education, 1-15. DOI: 10.1080/13613324.2016.1248829.
Wynter, Sylvia, and Katherine McKittrick. 2015. “Unparalleled Catastrophe for Our Species? Or, To Give Humanness a Different Future: Conversations.” In On Being Human as Praxis, edited by Katherine McKittrick, 9-89. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Wynter, Sylvia. 1990. “Afterword: Beyond Miranda’s Meanings: Un/silencing the ‘Demonic Ground’ of Caliban’s ‘Woman.’” In Out of the Kumbla: Caribbean Women and Literature, edited by Carol Boyce Davies and Elaine Savory Fido, 355-72. Trenton, NJ: Africa World.
—. 1991. “Columbus and the Poetics of the Propter Nos.” Annals of Scholarship 8 (2): 251-86.
—. 1995. “1492: A New World View.” In Race, Discourse, and the Origins of the America: A New World Views, edited by Vera Lawrence Hyatt and Rex Nettleford, 5-57. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
—. 2003. “Unsettling the Coloniality of Being/Power/Truth/Freedom: Towards the Human, after Man, Its Overrepresentation-An Argument.” CR: The New Centennial Review 3 (3): 257-337.
Yellin, Jean Fagan. 1989. Women and Sisters: The Antislavery Feminists in American Culture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Yerby, Frank. 1946. The Foxes of Harrow. New York: Dial.
Young, Cynthia. 2006. Soul Power: Culture Radicalism, and the Making of a U.S. Third World Left. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Young, Kevin. 2012. Ardency: A Chronicle of the Amistad Rebels. New York: Knopf.
Young, Robert J. C. 1995. Colonial Desire: Hybridity in Theory, Culture and Race. London: Routledge.
Yuval-Davis, Nira. 2011. The Politics of Belonging: Intersectional Contestations. London: Sage.
Zack, Naomi. 1993. Race and Mixed Race. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
—. 1995. American Mixed Race: The Culture of Microdiversity. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Zackodnik, Teresa C. 2011. Press, Platform, Pulpit: Black Feminist Politics in the Era of Reform. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.