“Globalization” is a term used by academics, political figures, and activists to describe changes in economic, political, and cultural life due to accelerated flows of capital, goods, media, and people across borders (Appadurai 2000; D. Harvey 2007; Lowe and Lloyd 1997). Another term used to describe these changes is “transnationalism” (Basch et al. 1994; Ong 1999). “Transnationalism” is sometimes used to identify processes and practices engaged in by ordinary people or social movements, whereas “globalization” is used to identify processes and practices engaged in by more powerful world actors like governments or multinational corporations (Guarnizo and Smith 1998).

Globalization is often ascribed to social transformations since the 1970s due to deindustrialization (i.e., the relocation of factory production to Third World countries) in advanced capitalist countries like the United States. Many scholars note, however, that global interactions and interconnections predate the 1970s. Colonialism is an early form of globalization from this …

This essay may be found on page 119 of the printed volume.

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