In 2004, Celaya FC, a second-division men’s soccer team in Mexico, attempted to sign striker Maribel Domínguez to a contract. Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport’s international governing organization, stepped in with an official prohibition and the assertion, “There must be a clear separation between men’s and women’s football” (Tuckman 2005). The memo prohibited Domínguez, who captained the women’s national team, from playing in even exhibition games with the men’s squad. Domínguez is hardly alone. Although Calgary Foothill team management felt she had earned her place on the squad, in 2017, the Canadian goalkeeper Stephanie Labbé was barred from playing with the men’s team for the same reason (Turk 2018).

This essay may be found on page 221 of the printed volume.

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