Globalization

It is nowadays hard to imagine that less than three decades ago the notion of globalization did not figure in the vocabularies of academics, policy makers, protesters, and business leaders. Globalization as a notion is rather new. It has replaced concepts such as internationalization and transnationalization (common until the late 1980s) because the notion/idea of globalization better reflects a new condition in worldwide economic, political, and cultural relations. Two clear differences mark this shift in conceptualization.

First, the traditional concepts of internationalization and transnationalization were considered as being too narrow for the current times, as they focused too much on the increasingly interwoven nature of national economies and nation-states through international trade and political relations. In the last decade of the twentieth century it became increasingly accepted that nation-states are not the only—and according to some, not even the most important—actors in global processes. Multinational companies of various kinds, …

This essay may be found on page 125 of the printed volume.

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